This is a database of questions from prior exams. These questions will give you a good idea of what to expect so you can prepare for exams.

The first answer should be the correct answer. If you notice a case where this is not so, please let us know.





QQ Anthropology encompasses both the positivist, empirical epistemology and:

(1) an interpretivist, humanist one.

(2) an irrationalist one.

(3) a formalist one.

(4) a negative, subjectivist one.

(5) a physical reductive one.        


QQ Which one of these statements is true?

(1) This course focuses on the scientific study of variation in human thought and human behavior.

(2) This course focuses primarily on variation among past societies.

(3) This course focuses primarily on the study of the roots of human languages.

(4) This course focuses on the comprehension of human forms of symbolic life.

(5) This course focuses on the study of human evolution through fossil evidence.


QQ Which of the following is false. Culture is:

(1) Innate.

(2) Learned.

(3) Cumulative and accelerative.

(4) Patterned.

(5) Symbolically mediated.


QQ Forensic anthropology is:

(1) The application of anthropological methods to solve crimes.

(2) The study of the causes of human diseases.

(3) The survey of crimes rates in different societies.

(4) The scientific study of the criminal mind.

(5) The study of the causes of criminal behavior.


QQ The Human Relations Area Files, a database of world cultures, is used by anthropologists primarily to:

(1) test hypotheses about cross-cultural regularities

(2) find alternative philosophies in other cultures that can help us live better lives

(3) formulate economic development policy initiatives.

(4) keep track of past research so that it is not duplicated.

(5) educate peoples from other cultures about cultural diversity.


QQ Among the main factors in the development of scientific anthropology in the 19th century were:

(1) The age of discoveries, the scientific revolution, the discovery of the antiquity of humanity.

(2) The scientific revolution, neocolonialism and the wars of independence in America.

(3) The discovery of the antiquity of humanity, the legacy of the Enlightenment period in philosophy and the fall of Napoleon's army.

(4) The debate over slavery, religious wars, and the struggle against ethnocentrism.

(5) The spread of Christianity, the success of the scientific method, the opening of new opportunities for women.


QQ An important impetus for North Americans to study anthropology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was:

(1) the rapid demise at that time of the Native American population.

(2) the immediate material gain associated with the profession.

(3) the noncontroversial nature of anthropology.

(4) that slavery was outlawed.

(5) proving that North Americans were equal in scholarship to Europeans.


QQ All of the following are factors in the development of anthropology since 1400 AD except:

(1) The beginning of the middle ages.

(2) The age of discovery in Europe.

(3) The scientific revolution.

(4) The debate over slavery.

(5) The discovery of the antiquity of humanity.


QQ Which of the following was NOT of historical importance in the development of anthropology before the 20th Century:

(1) The need by the British for systematic information about the culture of indigenous peoples in the British colonies.

(2) The debate in France, England, and the U.S. about the ethics of slavery.

(3) The work of Galileo, Francis Bacon, and René Descartes in developing the scientific method.

(4) The application by people like Adolphe Quételet and August Comte of the scientific method to the study of human thought and human behavior.

(5) Enthusiasm, in the wake of Darwin's breakthrough, for evolutionary schemes that could explain cultural differences across the world.


QQ Which one of these statements is false? The social sciences developed when it was learned that :

(1) All human societies are equally developed in terms of technology.

(2) The empirical approach can be applied to understand human behavior.

(3) There are regularities in human life.

(4) Knowledge about societies and cultures could be used to enlighten government.

(5) The scientific method could be applied to human affairs.


QQ What role did the Protestant Reformation play in the development of modern science?

(1) In supporting popular literacy for bible study, the Reformation encouraged the then new industry of book publishing, which made possible the storage and accumulation of knowledge.

(2) It freed Galileo from house arrest.

(3) People were encouraged to pursue scientific careers because of Martin Luther's training in science.

(4) The Reformation made possible the development of universities, which until the 15th Century were outlawed.

(5) It encouraged people to learn Latin and thus stimulated independent scientific inquiry.


QQ Often cited as the founder of modern science, who developed a new method for grinding lenses and used observations of the heavens to conclude that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe?

(1) Galileo Galilei

(2) Isaac Newton

(3) Aristotle

(4) Rene Descartes

(5) Johannes Gutenberg


QQ If an anthropologist is studying how social factors contribute to a community's fertility rate, the fertility rate is:

(1) the dependent variable

(2) the independent variable

(3) the hypothesis

(4) not important

(5) already known


QQ The empiricist idea of the "tabula rasa" means that:

(1) Nothing is written in the human mind except through experience.

(2) People have the innate capacity to learn.

(3) All scientific reasoning must be based on experiment.

(4) All knowledge is relative.

(5) Human beings can reach perfection through reason.


QQ The meanings behind cultural practices are most important to:

(1) humanists

(2) biological anthropologists

(3) empiricists

(4) positivists

(5) archeologists


QQ Hermeneutics is an approach that involves:

(1) The search for knowledge in texts

(2) The search for dates from rocks

(3) The making of stone tools from rocks

(4) Making systematic observations in experiments

(5) Building a taxonomy from fossils 


QQ Phenomenology can best be described as a philosophy that:

(1) insists you can only study reality by understanding the meanings people give to reality.

(2) developed as a reaction to interpretivism.

(3) applies an objective, logical, and systematic scientific method to discern reality.

(4) is nomothetic and concerned with the discovery of universal, social laws.

(5) promotes the discovery of functional, materialist explanations of cultural norms.

QQ Among the main contributions of symbolic anthropology are its studies on:

(1) How ritual behavior embodies cultural values.

(2) The relationship between genetic inheritance and cultural patterns.

(3) The relationship between local communities and state policies.

(4) Human patterns of cognition and their cross-cultural variation.

(5) The influence of economics on changes of gender identity across the world.


QQ Which one of these statements would be rejected by researchers in the cultural materialist tradition:

(1) The best way to explain why a particular population holds a particular set of values, beliefs and aesthetic standards is to study its religion.

(2) The primary task of cultural anthropology is to give causal explanations for the differences among cultures.

(3) The study of culture can best be carried out by studying the material constraints to which human existence is exposed.

(4) Constraints on human behavior arise from the need to produce food, shelter, and tools to maintain and reproduce human populations.

(5) The most likely causes of variation in the mental or spiritual aspects of human life are the variations in a society's infrastructure.


QQ Which of the following focuses on how people across cultures perceive their environment?

(1) Cognitive anthropology.

(2) Cultural materialism.

(3) Structuralism.

(4) Symbolic anthropology.

(5) Marxism.


QQ Deconstructionism is characterized by:

(1) The idea that reality for is socially constructed, and by the search for hidden biases in texts about human behavior and thought.

(2) The idea that scientific truth can be found by finding the hidden meanings in text--that is, by deconstructing it.

(3) Its blending of ideas from literary criticism and positivism to form a science of text.

(4) The use of open-ended questions in questionnaires.

(5) The assertion that cultures are texts that contain information about universal moral truths.


QQ The main contributions of Lewis Henry Morgan to anthropology were:

(1) His studies of kinship, his studies of the Iroquois nation, the application of the systematic questionnaire survey, and his theory of social evolution.

(2) His practice of fieldwork, his studies on sociolinguistics and his theory of biological evolution.

(3) His active struggle against slavery, his theory of social evolution and his focus on hermeneutic method.

(4) His insistence on the use of the native language in ethnography and his theory of biological evolution.

(5) His theories of social evolution and his practice as a lawyer in defending Indian land rights.


QQ What distinguishes anthropology from other social sciences is that it:

(1) Is global, evolutionary and comparative.

(2) Studies the progress of human cultures toward civilization.

(3) Is concerned with the cognitive component of the human experience.

(4) Deals effectively with the Enlightenment idea of human progress.

(5) Stresses the importance of psychological factors in social behavior.


QQ The founder of academic anthropology in the English-speaking world was:

(1) Edward Burnett Tylor.

(2) Franz Boas.

(3) Alfred Kroeber.

(4) Lewis Henry Morgan.

(5) A. R. Radcliffe-Brown.


QQ In the film “The Shackles of Tradition,” Franz Boas is shown working with George Hunt. Who was George Hunt and why was he so important to Boas’s work?


(1) Hunt was a Kwakiutl who produced most of the ethnographic material that Boas used.


(2) Hunt was Boas’s brother-in-law and it was Hunt who taught Boas how to use a harpoon to kill whales.  


(3) Hunt was the professor at Columbia University who took Boas to study the Indians of the Northwest Coast.  


(4) Hunt was the chief of the tribe that Boas studied and was responsible for Boas being accepted as a member of the tribe.


(5) All answers are correct.


QQ In contrast to a culture, a society is:

(1) An organized group of people who share a homeland and who depend on each other for their survival and well-being.

(2) The learned, socially acquired traditions of thought and behavior found in human groups.

(3) The set of lifestyles of ethnic groups comprising a human aggregate.

(4) The set of shared beliefs characterizing a human group.

(5) The set of regulations (whether written or unwritten) for behavior in a human group.


QQ The enculturation idea cannot account for:

(1) The evolution of culture.

(2) The transmission of beliefs.

(3) The continuity of culture.

(4) The training of the next generation.

(5) The control of the older generation over the children


QQ Enculturation is:

1) the process by which a child learns his or her culture

2) the accumulation of knowledge transmitted through genes

3) the process of change that a minority group may experience under a dominant culture

4) the exchange of cultural features between groups that are in continuous contact

(5) the diffusion or borrowing of terms between cultures


QQ Diffusionism is:

(1) The idea that similarities among cultures is the result of borrowing traits from one culture to another.

(2) A method for ethnographic work that dos not deal with theoretical issues.

(3) The local resistance to cultural domination from outsiders.

(4) The most powerful explanation developed so far for explaining sociocultural similarities and differences.

(5) The measurement of culture-transfer events that native informants find meaningful


QQ Social Darwinism postulated that:

(1) Cultural and biological progress depended on the free play of competitive forces in the struggle of individual against individual, nation against nation.

(2) Societies progress through various stages of development from theological to metaphysical to positivistic.

(3) Societies evolved from female-dominated, horticultural societies to male dominated, agricultural societies.

(4) History was the result of the struggle between social classes for control over the means of production.

(5) Each society has its own and unique history.


QQ Ethnography is:

(1) The description and interpretation of present-day cultures.

(2) The comparative and statistical study of cultural differences.

(3) A technique for gathering verbatim data in fieldwork.

(4) The use of the findings of anthropology to solve human problems.

(5) The study of cultural differences through the comparison of material in museum archives.


QQ What is the main idea in the approach developed by Franz Boas called "historical particularism"?

(1) It is premature to assert general theories of human cultural evolution, so to understand a culture, the best one can do is reconstruct its unique history.

(2) It is important to focus on individual biological differences in order to explain why there are different races and cultures.

(3) A thorough comparison of native American cultures is needed in order to build up a theory of the evolution of the American peoples.

(4) All cultures borrow material and nonmaterial artifacts freely from other cultures, so there can never be general theory of cultural evolution.

(5) Cultures are constructed by human beings and so can never be studied by applying statistical analyses to data.


QQ Biological anthropologists study:

(1) All answers are correct

(2) Human evolution

(3) Primate behavior

(4) Genetics and human variation

(5) Unidentified human remains (forensic anthropology)


QQ Archeologists study

(1) All answers are correct

(2) Variation in human thought and behavior

(3) Historic cultures and societies

(4) Prehistoric cultures and societies

(5) Material culture


QQ According to lecture, social science:

(1) All answers are correct

(2) Made possible effective treatment for phobias

(3) Produced more effective political advertising, including attack ads

(4) Produced more effective product advertising, including advertising that targets children as smokers

(5) Helped the development of the life insurance industry


QQ What distinguishes anthropology from other social sciences?

(1) All of these answers are correct

(2) A holistic approach

(3) Broad cross-cultural comparison

(4) Participant observation as the basis for data collection

(5) An evolutionary and comparative perspective


QQ Anthropology is:

(1) All answers are correct

(2) Holistic

(3) Comparative and cross cultural

(4) A biological and social science

(5) A humanistic discipline


QQ The principle information gathering tool of cultural anthropologists, where one lives for extended periods of time among a people, participating as much as possible in their daily round of activities, is called:

(1) Participant observation

(2) Survey research

(3) Interview research

(4) The experimental method

(5) Going native


QQ Which of the following is NOT one of the four subfields of academic anthropology?

(1) medical anthropology

(2) linguistic anthropology

(3) biological anthropology

(4) cultural anthropology

(5) archeological anthropology


QQ Applied anthropology is:

(1) the application of anthropological knowledge to real problems

(2) not really possible because anthropology produces no effective knowledge

(3) based on humanist, relativist principles about epistemology

(4) a true, fifth field of anthropology, according to lecture

(5) seen in three of the four fields of anthropology, but not in archeology


QQ Applied anthropology

(1) all answers are correct

(2) is historically part of the Enlightenment program in which the role of science is to improve the material condition of humankind

(3) played a role in America's administration of Japan immediately after World War II

(4) was an integral component of British colonial efforts in Africa

(5) has been an effective component of Mexico's administration of indigenous populations


QQ Kottak describes a lawsuit brought by the parents of black students at a predominantly white elementary school in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The parents alleged that their children experienced linguistic discrimination. What was the ruling in this case?

(1) The teachers had to attend a full-year course to improve their understanding of Black Vernacular English.

(2) The school had to begin teaching Black Vernacular English as a foreign language.

(3) The black students were not facing linguistic discrimination.

(4) The white students were facing linguistic discrimination because they did not speak Black Vernacular English.

(5) The Ann Arbor School System had to pay the private school tuition for the black students.


QQ According to lecture, which of the following is correct:

(1) Anthropology is a four-field discipline. Each of the four fields produces basic knowledge and has an applications component as well.

(2) Induction is a better way to achieve knowledge than deduction.

(3) Since there can be no science of culture, applied cultural anthropology is wishful thinking.

(4) Forensics is clearly applied biological anthropology, but none of the other fields of anthropology (like archeology, for example) have practical applications.

(5) Functionalism and historical particularism were thrown out by the unilineal evolutionists of the 19th century.


QQ Which of the following is false?

(1) archeology focuses on isolated cultural phenomena, so its emphasis is on local excavations

(2) archeological techniques and ethnography can be combined to study material culture

(3) before a site is excavated, it is first mapped and surface collected, so that the archeologist can make an informed decision about where to dig

(4) digging can be done in either arbitrary levels or by following the natural stratigraphy

(5) the layers or strata that make up a site help archeologists establish a relative chronology for the material recovered


QQ The utility of stratigraphy for dating of artifacts in archeology is based on the fact that:

(1) the depth and order of undisturbed soil strata reflect the age of their deposition.

(2) all environmental forces leave behind the same kind of soil deposit.

(3) higher strata are usually older than lower strata in undisturbed soil.

(4) soil strata are always uncluttered by bones, stones, and artifacts.

(5) none of these are correct.


QQ The study of how we know things at all is:

(1) epistemology

(2) methodology

(3) participant observation

(4) orthography

(5) empiricism


QQ Which of the following is not necessary in order to establish a causal theory from covariation:

(1) distinguish between emic and etic data

(2) establish the time sequence

(3) eliminate spuriousness

(4) provide a mechanism to link the covariants

(5) establish covariation


QQ In his "Spirit of Law," Montesquieu argued that: "Laws should be in relation to the climate of each country, to the quality of its soil and to its situation and extent." This is an early example of the idea of:

(1) Cultural relativism

(2) Environmental materialism

(3) Multilineal evolution

(4) Unilineal evolution

(5) None of these answers is correct


QQ "We hold these truths to be self evident . . . " is an example of:

(1) Rationalism

(2) Empiricism

(3) Logical positivism

(4) Moral relativism

(5) Positivism


QQ Who was among the 19th century founders of empirical social science?

(1) Adolphe Quételet

(2) Jean Jacques Rousseau

(3) John Locke

(4) Galileo

(5) Voltaire


QQ Taking empiricism to the extreme, one of the leaders of the Vienna Circle of Logical Positivism argued that:

(1) Atoms didn't exist because they couldn't be seen.

(2) Atoms must exist because everything is made of something.

(3) Humans cannot be studied using the same methods we use for nonhuman objects because humans attach meanings to their actions.

(4) The truth about the existence of atoms could be discovered through hermeneutics.

(5) Positivism is dead


QQ Humans learn particular languages because:

(1) two of these answers are correct

(2) they are genetically predisposed to understand their parents' language

(3) none of these answers is correct

(4) as Skinner said, they are rewarded for responding to stimuli that produce a particular language

(5) as Chomsky said, they have a built-in capacity for learning language, in general


QQ Comte wanted to apply the methods of science to the study of society in order to

(1) improve society

(2) promote humanism

(3) test his hypotheses

(4) disprove psychology

(5) prove cultural relativism   


QQ There are three paradigms for finding explanations for human phenomena. They are:

(1) Sociobiology, idealism, and materialism

(2) Rationalism, empiricism, and relativism

(3) Diffusionism, unilineal evolutionism, and functionalism

(4) Historical particularism, scientism, and positivism

(5) None of these answers are correct  


QQ What epistemological perspective infers the existence of laws governing all natural phenomena, including human behavior, and the possibility of finding those laws?


(1) Positivism


(2) Culturalism


(3) Particularism


(4) None of these answers are correct


(5) Humanism




QQ René Decartes' crucial epistemological distinction, which underpins all science, is the realization that there is a difference between the mind and:

(1) matter.

(2) external reality.

(3) the unconscious.

(4) imagination.

(5) the self.


QQ A central insight of the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment was that:

(1) information (knowledge) could be acquired, stored, and accumulated.

(2) other parts of the world existed.

(3) art, science and religion were not antithetical.

(4) ancient knowledge that had been lost could be recaptured.

(5) certain individuals had the capacity for a high degree of intellectual achievement.   


QQ A metaphor for the epistemological divide among anthropological researchers is:

(1) Scientist/Humanities Scholar.

(2) Biologist/Geologist.

(3) Literary Scholar/Theologian.

(4) Ecologist/Demographer.

(5) Urbanist/Ruralist.


QQ The social sciences developed in the 19th century under the assumption that:

(1) The empirical approach can be applied to understanding human behavior since there are regularities in human life.

(2) All human societies are equally developed, and that knowledge about societies could be used to enlighten government.

(3) The scientific method had proved able to correct social inequalities and to design programs to improve human life.

(4) The methods of hermeneutics were the best tools to understand human behavior and to deal with social problems.

(5) The scientific method could be applied to human affairs and that racism and ethnocentrism were false ideologies.


QQ What was the 19th century social issue that was the impetus for the development of some professional anthropological societies?

(1) slavery

(2) the industrial revolution.

(3) the opening of trade with Japan.

(4) the peak of expansion of the British Empire.

(5) a growing quantity of archeological data.


QQ The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland was formed in 1871 by combining the Society for the protection of the Aborigines and the Ethnological Society of London. This marked an important decision for the young discipline of anthropology. The decision was to:

(1) incorporate both humanist and empiricist intellectual traditions.

(2) include all the cultures of the planet as valid subjects for research.

(3) designate the participant observation as the preferred method of anthropological research

(4) lend the prestige of Imperial Britain to the young social science.

(5) make anthropology an aristocratic endeavor.


QQ A difference between American and British anthropology is that

(1) while American anthropology includes archeology as a discipline, British anthropology does not.

(2) British anthropology is mostly informed by a humanist approach, while American anthropology is mostly scientific

(3) British anthropologists have historically been less interested in applied issues

 (4) American anthropology is credited with the abolition of slavery while British anthropology perpetuated it in the colonies

(5) functionalism dominates American anthropological theory, while it is almost absent in British anthropological theorizing.


QQ Jean.Jacques Rousseau referred to the civic agreement between governors and the governed as

(1) the social contract.

(2) the Leviathan agreement.

(3) positive philosophy.

(4) the first representative constitution.

(5) the treaty of Versailles.


QQ According to John Stuart Mill, one of the basic assumptions in positivism is that:

(1) natural phenomena operate according to laws or law-like processes.

(2) natural phenomena are random and chaotic.

(3) science must replace humanistic views of nature.

(4) it is impossible to explain natural phenomena.

(5) the beliefs of primitive peoples can be the basis for a new science.


QQ During the 1700s in Europe and North America, which of the following did NOT spur interest in cultural differences?

(1) a period of global peace.

(2) private collections of artifacts gathered from around the world.

(3) the opening of the British Museum.

(4) the publication of explorers' journals.

(5) the opening of trade with Japan.   


QQ Louis Henry Morgan (1813–1881) developed a theory about the universal phases that cultures had passed through. This is an example of :

(1) unilinear evolution.

(2) technical teleology.

(3) diffusionism.

(4) personality and culture.

(5) functionalism.


QQ Who among the following was an early leader of a humanist revolt against the idea that human thought and behavior were the subject of a science?

(1) Edmund Husserl.

(2) August Comte.

(3) Francis Bacon.

(4) Adolphe Quetelet.

(5) John Stuart Mill.


QQ In a normative model of culture, we would study:

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) What people actually do.

(3) What people say they do.

(4) What people say they ought to do.

(5) Cultural norms 


QQ The idea that societies are organisms that have needs is most associated with:

(1) A.R. Radcliffe-Brown and Emil Durkheim.

(2) Bronislaw Malinowski.

(3) Franz Boas.

(4) Margaret Mead.

(5) Julian Steward.


QQ Which of the following statements about Branislaw Malinowski is false?

(1) He criticized functionalism because of its teleological reasoning.

(2) He showed that individual psychology depends on the culture in which people are brought up.

(3) He believed that the ethnographer's job is to study and record the cultural diversity threatened by Westernization.

(4) He argued that social institutions exist to solve human problems.

 (5) He helped establish the modern tradition of participant observation ethnography in anthropology.


QQ There are several competing theoretical approaches in the search for explanations of cultural differences. The approach with which Marvin Harris is most associated is called:

(1) Cultural materialism.

(2) Symbolic anthropology.

(3) Structuralism.

(4) Sociobiology.

(5) Historical particularism.


QQ All of the following are branches of American anthropology except:

(1) theoretical.anthropology

(2) archeology

(3) physical.anthropology

(4) linguistic.anthropology

(5) cultural.anthropology 


QQ All of the following are valid anthropological endeavors except:

(1) distinguishing primitive cultures from civilized ones.

(2) defining that which is distinctively human about human nature.

(3) distinguishing the difference between biological and cultural determinants of human nature.

(4) examining human cultures around the globe from prehistory to present.

(5) explaining the origins of social inequalities such as racism, sexism and poverty.


QQ A central tenet of anthropology is that each culture has its own unique integrity, arose in its own unique context, and therefore cannot be judged as morally inferior or superior to another culture. This position is known as:

(1) cultural relativism.

(2) ethical enculturation.

(3) ethnocentrism.

(4) cultural evolutionism.

(5) diffusionism


QQ The idea that continuity is preserved in a culture by teaching the infant certain values, attitudes, and practices is called:

(1) enculturation.   

(2) diffusion

(3) cultural evolution.

(4) etic analysis

(5) participant observation


QQ The cultural materialist paradigm for explaining cultural differences is based on the study of:

(1) the infrastructure, structure, and superstructure of a society.

(2) the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.

(3) conscious, subconscious, and unconscious behavior.

(4) literary texts about societies

(5) the religion and other expressive features of societies as explanations for behavior


QQ Materialist explanations for human behavior give primacy to the infrastructural determinants of human life. Among these are:

(1) demographic, technological, and natural environmental conditions

(2) local values

(3) ideas about reproduction

(4) cultural explanations for behavior

(5) local norms for behavior


QQ The term emic:

(1) refers to the way native people think and what they find significant

(2) refers to the scientist's categories and interpretations rather than those of the native

(3) is the humanistic component of the sociobiological paradigm

(4) emphasizes cause and effect rather than teleological thinking

(5) is the objective interpretation of facts in a culture


QQ A researcher is said to employ an emic perspective when he or she

(1) seeks to achieve an insider's perspective of a culture.

(2) achieves an objective, outsider’s view of a culture.

(3) uses humanistic rather than scientific methods to understand a culture.

(4) explains a culture using concepts from his or her own culture

(5) is interested in the religious aspects of culture.


QQ Sociology and anthropology are converging in their methods and theories because:

(1) all answers are correct

(2) anthropologists are interested in power relations in modern nations, including the United States

(3) sampling and statistical techniques are part of ethnography and ethnology

(4) the diversity of social life in industrialized nations requires that anthropologists adopt some social survey procedures

(5) as industrialization sweeps the world, anthropologists find themselves studying topics that are similar to those studied by sociologists


QQ Both historical particularism and functionalism stressed the importance of the research method known as:

(1) ethnographic fieldwork.

(2) literature surveys.

(3) statistical analysis.

(4) archeology.

(5) linguistic analysis.


QQ Teleological explanations and anthropomorphizing of society are associated with what theoretical approach in anthropology?

(1) Functionalism

(2) Structural_functionalism

(3) Cultural Materialism

(4) Cultural Ecology

(5) Postmodernism


QQ A historical particularist, like Franz Boaz, would attempt to explain a culture's marriage practices by:

(1) Studying the history of the culture to see how the practice was introduced

(2) Seeing how the marriage practice maintains the society

(3) Developing a model for the techno-environmental conditions under which the marriage practice occurs

(4) Finding out what biological or psychological needs of the individual are met by the practice

(5) Determining which stage of unilineal development the culture had reached (e.g., upper savagery, barbarism, etc.)


QQ A unilineal evolutionist, like Lewis Henry Morgan, would attempt to explain a culture's marriage practices by:

(1) Determining which stage of unilineal development the culture had reached (e.g., upper savagery, barbarism, etc.)

(2) Seeing how the marriage practice maintains the society

(3) Developing a model for the techno-environmental conditions under which the marriage practice occurs

(4) Studying the history of the culture to see how the practice was introduced

(5) Finding out what biological or psychological needs of the individual are met by the practice


QQ According to structural-functionalist theory, the main task of cultural anthropology is:

(1) To describe the contribution of social customs and institutions to the maintenance of the social order.

(2) To discover the laws governing the evolution of culture.

(3) To explain why the beliefs and practices that mold different personality types occur in some cultures.

(4) To study the different modes of production and reproduction in human societies.

(5) To explain the origin of cultural differences and similarities throughout history


QQ The difference between nomothetic and idiographic theories is that:

(1) nomothetic theories explain many cases of a phenomenon, while idiographic theories explain a single case

(2) nomothetic theories are based on sociobiology, while idiographic theories are based on culture

(3) nomothetic theories explain a single case of a phenomenon, while idiographic theories explain many cases

(4) idiographic theories are part of the positivist tradition, while nomothetic theories are part of the humanist and interpretivist tradition in the social sciences

(5) nomothetic theories comprise the final goal of the physical sciences, while the social sciences are limited to idiographic theories


QQ The new evolutionists of the latter half of the 20th century (e.g., White, Steward, and Harris) differed from the 19th Century evolutionists in that the new evolutionists:

(1) saw cultural evolution as multilineal rather than as unilineal

(2). believed in the inevitable progress of humand toward a perfect state

(3) didn't believe that culture was cumulative.

(4) didn't believe that culture was accelerative.

(5) saw class conflict as the driving force of the evolutionary process.


QQ Unilineal evolutionism was popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as an explanation for the diversity of human cultures. In England, the reaction against this theoretical paradigm was led by Bronislaw Malinowski and A. R. Radcliffe-Brown. In the U.S., a different alternative paradigm was developed by Franz Boas. The two alternative theories were:

(1) Functionalism and historical particularism

(2) Diffusionism and materialism

(3) Cultural ecology and feminism

(4) Marxism and interpetivism

(5) None of these answers is correct


QQ In 1891, Edward Westermarck showed that the same marriage system could occur in societies that were at very different levels of technological development. This finding supported the rejection of:

(1) unilineal evolutionary theories to account for cultural differences

(2) diffusionism

(3) materialism

(4) historical particularism

(5) sociocultural functionalism


QQ Anthropologists, like all social scientists, grapple with an epistemological question that involves first principles. This question is:

(1) Two of these answers are correct.

(2) Whether human beings know things as a consequence of their capacity to reason or as a consequence of exposure to stimuli, or some combination of these.

(3) Whether human behavior is the product of genetic influences or environmental influences, or some combination of these.

(4) Whether cultural relativism excuses genocide.

(5) Whether human beings can learn any language, depending entirely on what language they are exposed to in their early years


QQ The word "positivism" comes from French, "le positivisme." The word in French was coined by August Comte. John Stuart Mill explained the word to an English-speaking audience. One element of Mill's explanation was that positivism involves a belief that natural phenomena have discoverable causes. The other element was that positivism involves:

(1) A belief in the application of the scientific method for the betterment of humankind.

(2) The application of metaphysics to understanding natural phenomena.

(3) A belief in a monotheistic religion.

(4) The application of the scientific method to promote tyrannical governance.

(5) A belief that human beings live in a web of reality that they spin themselves and that, consequently, the scientific method is inappropriate for understanding human thought and behavior. 


QQ Wilhelm Dilthey was a leader of the revolt against positivism in the social sciences. He asserted that there were two distinct kinds of sciences, the Geisteswissenschaften and the Naturwissenschaften, or the human sciences and the natural sciences. He made this distinction because, he said:

(1) Human being live in a web of meanings that they spin for themselves. To study humans, we need to understand those meanings, and the traditional scientific method is inappropriate for this work.

(2) Human beings are imbued with a spirit that is impossible to understand.

(3) Culture is like art. It must be appreciated, not studied.

(4) It is unethical to reduce human beings to numbers.

(5) The scientific method is a fraud, even when applied to inanimate objects because human beings construct their own reality and can never truly understand the natural world.  


QQ Wilhelm Dilthey coined the terms Naturwissenschaften and Geisteswissenschaften in the late 19th Century to refer to sciences of nature and sciences of the mind. When psychology became an experimental science, it was a science of the mind, but acted like a science of nature. Wilhelm Windelband offered a solution by coining two new words:

(1) nomothetic and idiographic explanations, or "the study of what always is and the study of what once was."

(2) humanist and positivist approaches to achieving knowledge.

(3) rationalist and empiricist epistemologies.

(4) inductive and deductive reasoning.

(5) hermeneutics and phenomenology.


QQ Humanism has its roots in Protagoras' dictum that "Man is the measure of all things." This means that:

(1) Truth is not absolute, but is decided by individual human beings.

(2) Science is incompatible with compassion for human suffering.

(3) Ethnography is incompatible with empiricism and the tabula rasa principle.

(4) Hermeneutics continually uncovers the hidden truth in texts.

(5) Outsiders, like anthropologists, should not study cultures, because doing so might change those cultures.


QQ The qualitative-quantitative split in the social sciences is, according to lecture, based on false assumptions. This is because:

(1) At least two of these answers are correct.

(2) We have to ask first whether a question can be answered by empirical means at all, not whether an answer demands quantitative data. We can not, for example, decide whether Lear is pitiable or admirable through the scientific method, yet the problem deserves to be studied.

(3) Quantitative data don't necessarily make a question scientific. For example, no amount of counting references in the Old Testament to the subjugation of women provides scientific support for oppressing women today.

(4) Counting the dead accurately in Rwanda helps us preserve outrage.

(5) Science and humanism are inherently and forever incompatible. 


QQ Culture in general (rather than a specific culture):

(1) is cumulative and accelerative.

(2) has not evolved.

(3) is genetically determined.

(4) is determined by charismatic leaders.

(5) is immutable.   


QQ According to lecture, a major conundrum for anthropologists is how to hold to cultural relativism while not confusing it with:

(1) moral relativism.

(2) cultural absolutism.

(3) moral absolutism.

(4) cultural evolution.

(5) functionalism


QQ The fact that we find it disgusting that people from other cultures eat grubs is an example of:

(1) Ethnocentrism

(2) Cultural relativism

(3) Misogyny

(4) Androcentrism

(5) Positivism


QQ What is the opposite of ethnocentrism?

(1) cultural relativism

(2) secular humanism

(3) psychological anthropology

(4) universalism

(5) diffusion


QQ What is the dilemma of relativism?

(1) A simultaneous commitment to the idea that there are no superior or inferior cultures and to the idea that there are transcendental moral truths.

(2) A commitment to the idea that reason is superior to empiricism as a means of acquiring knowledge.

(3) The pursuit of scientific knowledge about human thought and behavior in the face of evidence that this is not possible.

(4) A commitment to the idea that humans are born tabula rasa in the face of evidence to the contrary.

(5) The notion that humans have the innate capacity to learn any culture even if humans are born without any specific culture.


QQ The thinking that explains how a thing came to its present state by working backwards from its present form is known as:

(1) teleological reasoning.

(2) temporal relativism.

(3) anachronicity.

(4) diffusionism

(5) essentialism.


QQ From the lecture on the educational model of social change, we conclude that the closer a behavior is to the _______________ the more likely education will work in bringing about desired change in that behavior.

(1) superstructure

(2) infastructure

(3) structure

(4) technology of society

(5) demography of society


QQ Unilineal evolution was discredited and was replaced by the historical particularism of this anthropologist:

(1) Franz Boas

(2) Lewis Henry Morgan

(3) Marvin Harris

(4) Bronislaw Malinowski

(5) A.R. Radcliffe_Brown


QQ Which of the following is an example of effective social science?

(1) All answers are correct

(2) Treatment for phobias.

(3) The retirement age of 65.

(4) Attack ads in politics.

(5) Advertisements that attract adolescents to start smoking.


QQ In lecture we saw that the increasing problem of "burning brides" in India is explained by female hypergamy (women marrying up in social class) and pressure on the bride's family to come up with the dowry required to make this work. This is an example of a(n) _______ explanation.

(1) idiographic, materialist

(2) idiographic, idealist

(3) nomothetic, materialist

(4) nomothetic, idealist

(5) sociobiological


QQ In the U.S., anthropology developed as a four-field discipline, while in Europe, the subfields developed separately. Why did that happen?

(1) At the time, in the 19th Century, anthropologists in the U.S. saw it as an urgent task to study and document the cultures of the (then) fast-disappearing American Indians. Documenting the tribes involved linguistics, biology, and archeology, as well as ethnology.

(2) Enlightenment scholars in Europe favored the splintering of the sciences rather than their integration.

(3) The theory of unilineal evolution that was in favor in Europe was incompatible with the integration of biology and culture into one field of study.

(4) Europeans did participant observation fieldwork, while the Americans used secondary data, like reports from travelers, missionaries, and soldiers.

(5) The social issue of slavery was resolved much earlier in Europe than in America.



QQ Since the Upper Paleolithic:

(1) None of these answers is correct.

(2) Changes in human culture have come increasingly to depend on concomitant changes in human biology.

(3) The capacity for culture has become increasingly less important for human survival.

(4) Bipedalism has become less important to human survival.

(5) The world has seen dozens of major demographic transitions.


QQ Among the many influences on Darwin's thinking was that of a scholar who formulated the so-called population principle and the idea of a struggle for survival among people who compete for declining resources. This was:

(1) Thomas Malthus.

(2) Charles Lyell.

(3) Alfred Russel Wallace.

(4) Lewis Henry Morgan.

(5) Thomas Huxley.


QQ The first to postulate the concept of the struggle for survival was:

(1) Thomas Malthus.

(2) Charles Lyell.

(3) Alfred Russel Wallace.

(4) Adam Smith.

(5) Charles Darwin.


QQ Which of the following is NOT an important figure in the development of evolutionary thinking during the 18th and 19th centuries?

(1) Isaac Newton

(2) Alfred Russel Wallace

(3) Charles Darwin

(4) Thomas Malthus

(5) Charles Lyell


QQ Who influenced Darwin through his theory of uniformitarianism?

(1) ) Charles Lyell

(2 Thomas Malthus

(3) Linneaus (Carl von Linné)

(4) Georges Cuvier

(5) Jean Baptiste Lamarck


QQ What did Carolus Linnaeus develop in the 18th century?


(1) Biological taxonomy


(2) Natural selection


(3) Allen’s Rule


(4) Eugenics

(5) Population genetics


QQ Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin had the same idea at the same time. The idea was:

(1) That the mechanism for biological evolution is differential rates of reproduction.

(2) That evolution proceeded in uniform stages for all species.

(3) That there were units of heredity we now call "genes" that contain the information on which evolution is based.

(4) That the age of the earth is sufficient to accommodate a slow process of biological evolution.

(5) That Jean Baptiste Lamarck's principle of acquired characteristics was essentially correct.


QQ The Principle of uniformitarianism proposed by Charles Lyell states that:

(1) Geological forces at work now are the same forces that were at work in the past.

(2) In order to make Mousterian tools, flakes have to be struck uniformly off of the core.

(3) The layers of the earth were laid down in uniform thicknesses.

(4) If environmental conditions are the same, cultural practices will be more or less uniform.

(5) Culture and biology are linked


QQ Which of the following is NOT a process of population



(1) Gene splicing


(2) Natural selection


(3) Random genetic drift


(4) Gene flow


(5) Mutation


QQ If you think of the history of the planet as the length of a football field (100 yards), then H. sapiens sapiens appears around:

(1) the last 1/5 of an inch

(2) the last 10 yards

(3) the last 20 yards

(4) the last two feet

(5) the last foot


QQ One theory of how hominoids evolved during the opening of savannas in the forests of the East Africa during the Miocene is called the freeing hands theory. Another is the:

(1) tall grass theory.

(2) glacier crossing theory.

(3) fire and ice theory.

(4) arboreal flight theory.

(5) water source theory.


QQ The hominoid superfamily comprises:

(1) Apes and humans

(2) Monkeys

 (3) Modern humans and early hominids

(4) Pongidae and hylobatidae

(5) Baboons and New World monkeys


QQ Hominoids include _____ while hominids refers to_____

(1) all apes and humans; the human line, including the Australopithecines and the genus Homo

(2) primates; anthropoids

(3) anthropoids; chimpanzees and humans

(4) the order anthropoidea; the great apes

(5) pongids; apes and humans


QQ Which of the following bogus links to human origins was found in England?

(1) Piltdown man

(2) Lucy

(3) The Taung baby

(4) Homo habilis

(5) Cro-Magnon man


QQ From current evidence, it appears that the hominid ability to make (not just use) tools

(1) Developed before bipedalism was fully acquired.

(2) Co-evolved with bipedalism.

(3) Developed long after the development of bipedalism.

(4) Developed in Homo erectus, long after the Australopithecines were gone.

(5) Developed only in the Middle Paleolithic after the capacity for language was sufficiently developed.


QQ What is punctuated equilibrium?

(1) The idea that evolution occurs mainly through short periods of quick change interspersed by longer periods of relative stability.

(2) The ecological conditions which selected for bipedalism among hominids.

(3) A variant of catastrophism, related to scientific creationism.

(4) The theory on which evolutionism is historically based.

(5) The idea, as conceived by Darwin, that evolution proceeds in a gradual, orderly fashion.


QQ Punctuated equilibrium is the theory that:

(1) species evolve by quick episodes of change followed by long periods of relative stability.

(2) species evolve by slow graduated change.

(3) species evolve during periods of low environmental disturbance and remain unchanged during periods of environmental chaos.

(4) species evolve slowly during periods of food source abundance and rapidly during food source depletion.

(5) None of these answers are correct.


QQ Where have Homo erectus fossils NEVER been found?

(1) Brazil

(2) China

(3) France

(4) Indonesia

(5) Hungary


QQ According to lecture, even though ______ had a brain larger than its predecessors (around 950 cubic cm), in terms of cultural evolution it didn't appear to make that much difference.

(1) Homo erectus

(2) Homo Habilis

(3) Australpithecus africanus

(4) Neanderthals

(5) Homo ergaster


QQ According to the Fialkowski hypothesis, the relatively rapid development of the brain in the transition to Homo erectus was the consequence of:

(1) Casual bipedalism and all-day hunting in the tropics.

(2) The need for greater hand-eye coordination in the manufacture of stone tools.

(3) The need for more reasoning power in social groups where males and females share responsibility for raising children.

(4) The need to make projectile points in order to improve hunting efficiency.

(5) Greater efficiency at scavenging the kill of predators.


QQ Fialkowski's theory to explain the presence of bigger brains in Homo habilis and early Homo erectus is that bigger brains provided:

(1) increased resistance to heat stress

(2) increased intelligence

(3) tool manufacturing ability

(4) social communication

(5) social organization


QQ The separation of the evolutionary lines leading to modern apes and modern humans took place during the:

(1) Miocene.

(2) Pleistocene.

(3) Early Paleolithic.

(4) Holocene.

(5) Neolithic.


QQ The Neanderthals were:

(1) Either Homo sapiens who were a local adaptation to middle Paleolithic European environmental conditions, or a separate species of hominid. This is still under debate.

(2) A local variation of Homo sapiens restricted to the Neander valley in Germany.

(3) Stooped over because they had not fully developed bipedalism.

(4) First discovered in 1910.

(5) A racial variety of Homo sapiens sapiens.


QQ Who were the Neandertals?


(1) Two of these answers may be correct.


(2) They were an evolutionary dead end, a split from H. erectus, and were displaced (or perhaps even wiped out) by the fully modern H. sapiens sapiens known as the Cro-Magnon people.


(3) They are actually a late variety of H. erectus that migrated out of Africa to Europe 100,000 years ago.


(4) They are actually anatomically modern humans. Their extreme sexual dimorphism makes some people think that Neandertals are not part of the human line.


(5) They were essentially an early species of H. sapiens that  developed during the Middle Paleolithic in Europe and the Middle East. They were ancestral to modern H. sapiens sapiens.


QQ What accounts for the popular image of Neandertals as ape-like, semi-upright brutes?

(1) the first fossil described was from an old man who had suffered from bone disease.

(2) ethnocentric, British intellectuals presented the fossils as evidence of the inferiority of other Europeans.

(3) early fossils were incomplete.

(4) the earliest fossils of Neandertal humans were fabricated to perpetuate a hoax.

(5) Neandertals were, in fact, semi-upright, which is why they were replaced by the more modern Cro-Magnon humans.


QQ Recent evidence indicates that:

(1) All these answers are true.

(2) The Cro-Magnon people may have absorbed rather than wiped out the Neanderthals.

(3) Humans may have arrived in North America 40,000 years ago, with the first expansion of H. sapiens.

(4) The earliest humans in North America were big game hunters.

(5) Upper Paleolithic people were already in Australia at least 20,000 years ago.


QQ The multi-regional hypothesis states that:

AA S (1) Ancestral populations of modern humans evolved in parallel from earlier populations in Africa, Europe, and Asia.

(2) Ancestral populations of all modern humans migrated from Africa to other parts of the world.

(3) Ancestral populations of modern humans evolved from Neanderthal populations in Asia and Europe.

(4) Ancestral populations of modern humans evolved in Africa, Europe, and Asia and migrated to the New World in several different episodes.

(5) None of these answers are correct.


QQ The presence of archaic H. sapiens in Jebel Qafzeh cave at 92,000 years ago and Neandertals at nearby Tabun cave 60,000 years ago:

(1) supports the out-of-Africa, single origin theory of the development of modern Homo sapiens

(2) indicates that Neandertals were really H. erectus

(3) indicates that Homo sapiens originated in Europe

(4) shows that modern H. sapiens were culturally superior to the Neandertals

(5) supports the theory that genus Homo was basically a vegetarian until the late Pleistocene


QQ According to current evidence:

(1) Homo sapiens first developed in Africa.

(2) Homo sapiens developed simultaneously in Africa and Asia.

(3) Homo sapiens developed in several parts of the world independently from one another.

(4) Archaic Homo sapiens were replaced by Neanderthals.

(5) Archaic Homo sapiens were replaced by Homo erectus.

QQ Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens between _______ years ago.

(1) 500,000 and 200,000

(2) one million and 500,000

(3) two million and one million

(4) 100,000 and 50,000

(5) 40,000 and 10,000


QQ Mitochondrial DNA evidence supports the conclusion that

(1) humankind had a single origin in east Africa between about 140,000 to 180,000 ya

(2) human aggression is genetically programmed

(3) the candelabra, or multiple-origin, theory is the most accurate explanation of the origin of humans

(4) there are genetically programmed behavioral differences among human males and females

(5) each of the current human races comes from a different variety of Homo sapiens


QQ Which of the following, according to lecture, is NOT true?

AA S (1) Racial groups may be identified based on the mitochondrial DNA of regional populations.

(2) The social concept of race ignores human variability.

(3) There are regional gene concentrations that define biological races in humans.

(4) The concept of race is a folkloric idea.

(5) Every morphological variation has a range of distribution.


QQ Which of the following statements are TRUE concerning the scientist Paul Broca and his experiments concerning race?


(1) All of the statements are true.


(2) Broca examined ratios between the radius and humerus to show which races were more apelike.


(3) Broca examined brain size, but abandoned upper end of scale because of white inferiority.


(4) Broca measured the average length the foramen magnum was from the back of the head in different races.


(5) Broca’s experiments suffered from confirmation bias.



QQ What are groups assumed to have biological basis but are actually defined in a culturally arbitrary rather than scientific manner called?


(1) Social Races


(2) Clines


(3) Kinship


(4) Social Classes


(5) Sex



QQ Current mitochondrial DNA evidence supports the theory that:

(1) modern humans and Neanderthals separated about 600,000 years ago,

(2) Neanderthals were simply a cold-adapted subspecies of modern humans.

(3) Neanderthals and fully modern humans co-existed until the end of the Pleistocene, about 6,000 years ago.

(4) Neanderthals evolved in east Africa, while modern humans evolved in Europe.

(5) Neanderthals were the victims of genocide by Homo sapiens.

QQ What distinguishes hominids from other hominoids?

(1) Habitual bipedal locomotion

(2) A sagittal crest

(3) No canine diastema

(4) The lack of a foramen magnum

(5) Arboreal living


QQ A sagittal crest on a fossil hominid indicates:

(1) large masseter muscles and a vegetarian diet.

(2) large masseter muscles and a carnivorous diet.

(3) a lack of bipedalism.

(4) an off-center foramen magnum.

(5) a brain case the size of Neanderthal's.

QQ Flaring zygomatic arches, large mandibles, and remnants of a sagittal crest in Australopithecines are indications of:

(1) Continued reliance on dentition compared to later hominids

(2) Bipedalism

(3) Adaptation to cold

(4) The use of fire

(5) The presence of tools


QQ Which of the following are differences between ape dentition

and hominid dentition?


(1) Hominids have smaller canines than those of apes


(2) Hominids have a canine diastema while apes do not


(3) The dental arcade of hominids is parallel, while that of apes is parabolic


(4) Apes have a dental formula, while hominids have a dental formula


(5) The molars of apes are smaller and have less chewing surface area than those of hominids


QQ The sagittal crest seen in some Australopithecines is evidence of:

(1) ape-like jaws and massive musculature

(2) bipedalism

(3) a downward facing foramen magnum

(4) tool use in early hominids

(5) the early evolution of H. erectus in Africa


QQ What is the correct sequence?

(1) Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene

(2) Pliocene, Miocene, Pleistocene

(3) Pleistocene, Holocene, Oligocene

(4) Oligocene, Pleistocene, Miocene

(5) Miocene, Oligocene, Pleistocene


QQ Raymond Dart's discovery of the Taung Child skeleton in South Africa in 1924 startled scholars because it contradicted the common assumption that bipedalism followed:

(1) enlargement of the brain.

(2) speech.

(3) social development.

(4) the ability to make tools.

(5) the ability to use tools.


QQ When Raymond Dart discovered the Taung child in 1924, he concluded that it was not a fossil of an ape, but one of a more human-like primate because:

(1) The foramen magnum faced downward, indicating upright posture.

(2) There was evidence of opposable thumbs.

(3) The brain case was so much larger than that of any known ape.

(4) The endocranial cast showed evidence of a highly evolved brain.

(5) It had opposable thumbs.


QQ Why was Raymond Dart's interpretation of the Taung fossil rejected at the time?

(1) Dart's theory was that human evolution began with a shift to orthograde, bipedalism, not with the development of the brain case.

(2) European and American scientists didn't trust scholars from South Africa.

(3) All the other fossil evidence available showed that the foramen magnum was in the back of the skull on Australopithecines, not in the middle of the base.

(4) The Taung baby's braincase was fully the size of modern humans, but it walked on all fours.

(5) The Taung baby's dental arcade showed the typical pattern of New World Monkeys (2-1-3-3 or 2-1-3-2) instead of the typical Old World Anthropoid pattern (2-1-2-3)

QQ The geological epoch in which Paleolithic cultures are found is called the:

(1) Pleistocene.

(2) Miocene.

(3) Oligocene.

(4) Cambrian.

(5) Holocene. 


QQ Australopithecus africanus means:

(1) Southern ape from Africa.

(2) Australian ape from Africa.

(3) Primate of the African Savannah.

(4) Hunter/Gatherer of Africa.

(5) African Aborigine.


QQ The oldest of the Australopithecines is _____ at about _______ years ago.

(1) ramidus, 5 million

(2) afarensis (Lucy), 4 to 4 million

(3) africanus, 2 to 3 million

(4) erectus, 5.5 million

(5) sahelensis, 6 to 7 million

QQ The fossil remains named "Lucy" represent what species of hominid?

(1) Australopithecus afarensis

(2) Homo erectus

(3) Homo rudolfensis

(4) Homo neanderthalensis

(5) Archaic Homo sapien


QQ Some of the earliest stone tools are found at Hadar, Ethiopia around:

(1) 2.5 million ya.

(2) 1 million ya.

(3) 4 million ya.

(4) 500,000 ya.

(5) 200,000 ya. 


QQ The Hominids can be distinguished from their progenitors the hominoids most importantly by:

(1) bipedalism.

(2) vegetarianism.

(3) stereoscopic vision.

(4) hunter/gatherer foraging.

(5) family loyalty.


QQ The Primate order, as compared with other mammalian orders, has distinctive hands and feet, versatile forelimbs, acute vision, and:

(1) larger brains.

(2) short pregnancies and infancies.

(3) simpler social behavior.

(4) larger litters.

(5) high reliance on an acute sense of smell.


QQ Which of the following is NOT a mammalian adaptation noted in



(1) Increased reliance on the sense of smell over vision  


(2) Constant body temperature


(3) Postpartum development of helpless individuals


(4) Greater reliance on learned behavior


(5) Internal reproduction and fertilization


QQ The most likely explanation for the loss of estrus in some anthropoids during the sequence of human evolution is that:

(1) It contributed to the development of cooperative bonds between males and females.

(2) It led to a decrease in birth spacing interval.

(3) It produced an increase in the number of offspring.

(4) It lowers the need for protein in early childhood development.

(5) It eliminates sexual dimorphism, resulting in adult females and males of equal size.


QQ Among the following, the primates most closely related to Homo sapiens are the:

(1) Pongids (gorillas and chimpanzees).

(2) Prosimians (lemurs, lorises).

(3) Hylobates (gibbons).

(4) Platyrrhines (New World monkeys).

(5) Catarrhines (Old World monkeys).


QQ Which one of the following is NOT a biological adaptation of



(1) Immediate post-partum independence and a short post-partum maturation period


(2) Grasping hands, with nails rather than claws


(3) Stereoscopic vision and an increased reliance on visual acuity


(4) An increase in relative brain size, compared to other mammals


(5) A shortened snout and a decreased reliance on the sense of smell

QQ Which of the following is a unique feature of the Platyrrhines (New World monkeys) compared to other Anthropoids?

(1) Many species have a prehensile tail.

(2) Their brain is larger, relative to body size, than the Prosimians.

(3) The Platyrrhines are carnivorous.

(4) Platyrrhine males grow to 80kg.

(5) Platyrrhines are brachiators.


QQ Monkeys that have outward-projecting nostrils and a prehensile tail describes which of the following?


(1) Platyrrhines


(2) Catarrhines


(3) Prosimii


(4) Lorisiformes


(5) Cercopithecoidea



QQ Monkeys that have a prehensile tail are in which group of primate?


(1) Platyrrhines


(2) Catarrhines


(3) Prosimii


(4) Lorisiformes


(5) Cercopithecoidea


QQ The separation of the ancestral line leading to modern human beings from the line leading to modern chimpanzees probably occurred:

(1) between 5 and 8 million years ago

(2) 2.5 years ago

(3) 1 million years ago

(4) 15 millions years ago

(5) None of these are correct


QQ Current evidence places the origin of the Earth at around 4.5 billion years. Primates have been around for about:

(1) 1.5% of that time.

(2) 10% of that time.

(3) 25% of that time.

(4) .0001% of that time.

(5) 200 million years, or about 4.5% of that time.


QQ Primates first emerged____________ years ago during the

___________ era.


(1) 65 million, Cenozoic


(2) 75 million, Mesozoic


(3) 30 million, Cenozoic


(4) 105 million, Mesozoic


(5) 300 million, Paleozoic


QQ The separation of the New World and the Old World primates happened about 35 million years ago during the Oligocene. Which of the following anatomical or behavior characteristics is limited to the New World monkeys?

(1) A prehensile tail in some species.

(2) Stereoscopic vision.

(3) Opposable thumbs.

(4) Prehensile hands.

(5) Arboreal living in some species.


QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) Two answers are correct.

(2) In the late Miocene and early Pliocene, some terrestrial primates in Africa became orthograde and bipedal.

(3) Some scholars classify the later, robust versions of Australopithecus as a separate genus called Paranthropus.

(4) The hallmark of early hominid development was the enlargement of the brain prior to bipedalism.

(5) Notable features of modern humans include a canine diastema and a sagittal crest at the top of the cranium for anchoring the masseter muscles.


QQ Regarding the debate as to the distinction between the gracile and robust australopithecines

(1) some researchers believe that gracile and robustus are probably descendants of A. afarensis

(2) A. boisei displays a hyper-robust postcranial configuration while africanus displays several variations of a sagittal crest

(3) both africanus and robustus converged to become an australopithecine of mixed gracile and robust characteristics

(4) the gracile forms evolved into the genus Homo even though the robustus and boisei coexisted with Homo habilis

(5) it is likely that boisei developed from robustus into a separate, more gracile species, highly specialized for an arboreal vegetation diet


QQ Mary Leakey’s find of fossilized footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania in 1979, shows that:


(1) A. afarensis was not just bipedal but had a striding gait.


(2) A. afarensis was a carnivore.


(3) The genus Homo had developed by 3.6 mya.


(4) There was little sexual dimorphism in A. afarensis. 


(5) The pelvis of A. afarensis had not yet developed for bipedalism.



QQ Which of the following sequences is chronologically correct?


(1) A. africanus, A. robustus, H. habilis, H. erectus


(2) A. africanus, H. habilis, H. erectus, A. robustus


(3) A. robustus, A. africanus, H. erectus, H. habilis


(4) H. habilis, H. erectus, A. robustus, A. africanus


(5) H. erectus, A. robustus, H. habilis, A. africanus


QQ Except for the Toumai (sahelensis) find, the oldest hominids are:

(1) Australopithecines.

(2) Cro-Magnon.

(3) Neanderthals.

(4) Homo erectus.

(5) Homo habilis.


QQ Why is the Toumai find (Sahelanthropus tchadensis) so interesting to paleoanthropologists these days?


(1) All answers are correct.


(2) The fossil helps to close the Miocene fossil gap.


(3) The canine teeth are less ape-like and more like those of modern hominids.


(4) The fossil is from Central Africa, while all other finds of early hominids have been from East and South Africa.


(5) The brain case is the size of modern chimp’s, but the face is flat, like that of a modern hominid.


QQ Current evidence points to which of the following scenarios for human evolution:

(1) The evolution of humanity, from the earliest australopithecines, through the development of Homo erectus was in Africa

(2) The earliest hominids developed in Africa and migrated to Asia and to Europe during the early Pliocene.

(3). There were parallel evolutions of Homo sapiens in Africa, Asia, North America, and Europe.

(4) Homo erectus developed in China more or less at the same time as the Australopithecines developed in Africa.

(5) The human brain developed first, leading to the development of bipedalism.


QQ One possible explanation for the absence of Acheulean tools in China and Indonesia is:

(1) The substitution of bamboo for Acheulean tools

(2) Poor preservation of Acheulean wood

(3) The absence of hominids in Asia during the Acheulean period

(4) The lack of any materials for Acheulean tools

(5) None of these is correct


QQ The Gombe chimpanzee's behavior of fishing ants and termites is:

(1) A cultural trait.

(2) Genetically inherited.

(3) Transmitted by females to males.

(4) Observed in all chimpanzee populations.

(5) Observed only among males.

QQ Which of the following is not an example of chimp tool use?

(1) banging a nut onto a stone

(2) inserting a twig into an ant nest

(3) throwing stones at predators

(4) using leaves to collect water in the holes of trees

(5) All of these are examples of chimp tool use



 QQ It takes chimps three and four years to learn to capture termites and ants without injuring themselves. This is evidence for:

(1) the evolution of culture

(2) the fact that chimps do not eat meat

(3) punctuated equilibrium

(4) rudimentary bipedalism

(5) none of these answers is correct


QQ Chimps in the wild have been observed doing all of the following tool-making activities EXCEPT:

(1) wrapping themselves in skins to keep warm.

(2) making sponges for sopping up water from hollow in trees.

(3) using anvil and hammer stones to open nuts

(4) placing sticks in crevices to use as hand and foot holds for climbing.

 (5) fishing for ants in subterranean nests.


QQ Among the reasons for the lack of human speech among chimpanzees is that:

(1) Their vocal tracts cannot make the sounds necessary for human speech.

(2) They are not sufficiently intelligent.

(3) Nobody has tried to teach them to do so.

(4) They do not have a culture to transmit.

(5) They do not communicate their feelings to others.


QQ According to evolutionary theory, fitness refers to:

(1) The number of direct descendants an individual organism has.

(2) The survival of offspring up to the age of reproduction .

(3) The ability to acquire new and increasingly complex patterns of behavior through learning.

(4) The program of mating and reproductive behavior typical of mammals.

(5) The genetically inherited patterns of behavior of a human population.


QQ The earliest direct ancestor of the current human species is:

(1) Homo habilis.

(2) Australopithecus africanus.

(3) Australopithecus robustus.

(4) Homo neandertalensis.

(5) Homo erectus.


QQ Mendel's main contribution to the theory of evolution was:

(1) Experiments showing that dominant and recessive genes contributed to heredity.

(2) The idea of natural selection.

(3) The discovery that food scarcity puts limits on population growth.

(4) The concept of the survival of the fittest.

(5) The discovery of the antiquity of the earth.


QQ Natural selection:

(1) results in differential rates of reproduction within a species.

(2) is the survival of the fittest within any generation.

(3) introduces mutations into populations.

(4) has ceased to be a factor in human evolution.

(5) no answer is correct.


QQ Which of these traits appeared latest in human evolution?

(1) Expansion of the brain.

(2) Bipedalism.

(3) Tool using.

(4) Opposable thumbs.

(5) Living in social groups.


QQ Except for the Bonobo chimpanzees of Zaire, sexuality in Homo sapiens is unique among primates in that:

(1) female sexual receptivity is constant.

(2) there are genital swellings at ovulation.

(3) a definite period of estrus occurs in each ovulation cycle.

(4) sexual activity includes homosexual and heterosexual activities.

(5) frequency of sexual activity is not related to social interdependence.

QQ Which of the following is false?

(1) Modern H. sapiens evolved from chimps and other modern Hominoids.

(2) Modern chimps and gorillas share about 97% of their DNA code with modern humans.

(3) Current non-human Hominoids and current H. sapiens evolved from a common ancestor.

(4) By the mid-19th Century, the idea that species evolved was well established. Darwin's contribution was not establishing the fact of evolution but providing a mechanism for it.

(5) Natural selection is about differential rates of reproduction, not about the survival of the fittest.


QQ A short ovulation period and year-round sexual receptivity of females:

(1) may foster the development of pair bonding in humans and the protection of females and young

(2) is found in humans and chimps, who share a number of similarities in their reproductive strategies

(3) explains the existence of polygynous marriages in humans

(4) is a consequence of bipedalism and the need of hominids to walk great distances in hunting

(5) developed with the need of females to be more mobile in their search for roots and plants


QQ Which of the following is NOT a location where australopithecine fossils have been found?

(1) Morocco

(2) South Africa

(3) Kenya

(4) Ethiopia

 (5) Tanzania


QQ What is the term for the bony ridge found on top of the skulls of robust australopithecines?

(1) sagittal crest

(2) ischium

(3) foramen magnum

(4) masseter

(5) temporalis


QQ What was the major hominid group that lived from about 5 mya to 1 mya?

(1) Australopithecus

(2) Homo erectus

(3) Ramapithecus

(4) Dryopithecus

(5) Homo sapiens


QQ Which of the following statements about Australopithecus africanus is true

(1) They were fully bipedal

(2) They were primarily carnivores

(3) They lived in the tropical forest

(4) They had a greater cranial capacity than did Homo erectus

(5) All of these answers are correct


QQ Which anatomical feature of australopithecines reflects their savanna diet?

(1) all of these answers are correct

(2) massive posterior teeth

(3) sagittal crest

(4) large chewing muscles

(5) thick facial bones


QQ Which of the following is a difference between Homo erectus and the later australopithecines?

(1) Homo erectus' cranial capacity was much larger

(2) Homo erectus exhibited full bipedalism

(3) The australopithecines’ teeth suggest they ate a lot more meat

(4) Homo erectus had the largest sagittal crest of any hominid

(5) Homo erectu’' mortuary practices are less elaborate


QQ The tool kit of H. erectus has no projectile points. This, along with the lack of body hair and the presence of many sweat glands in humans is evidence for the theory that:

(1) H. erectus hunted game on the open savannah by running it into the ground in broad daylight

(2) H. erectus was omnivorous

(3) H. erectus did not rely on meat protein

(4) the middle Pleistocene was a time of moderate temperature in eastern and southern Africa

(5) H. erectus had no natural enemies


QQ Which of the following statements about techniques used in dating fossil remains is correct?

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) The potassium-argon technique is used to date inorganic substances, such as rock

(3) Carbon-14 techniques are used to date organic material

(4) Potassium-argon dating is most accurate on specimens that are over 500,000 years old

(5) Carbon-14 dating is most accurate on specimens that are up to 40,000 years old


QQ Judging from recent practices of hunting-and-gathering groups, which of the following contributed to birth control during the Paleolithic?

(1) All answers are correct 

(2) Prolonged lactation 

(3) Extended birth spacing 

(4) Infanticide 

(5) Abortion


QQ Absolute dating techniques, like the C-14 and the potassium-argon method:

(1) involve determining the age of fossils, based on known rates of decay in elements

(2) require the dating of fossils from the strata in which they are found

(3) involve the comparison of tools and bones

(4) involve measuring decay in radioactive elements found in the soil around fossils

(5) establishes a time frame in relation to other strata or materials


QQ Homo erectus appeared in Africa and Asia at approximately the same time, but in Asia there is no accompanying presence of:

(1) bifaced tools.

(2) bipedal locomotion.

(3) omnivorous diet.

(4) arboreal dwelling.

(5) domesticated animals.


QQ From the evidence at Zhoukoudian, it appears that:

(1) Homo erectus was using (and may have learned to control) fire by half a million years ago.

(2) The earliest controlled use of fire was in Kenya over 2 million ya.

(3) Biface tools and the controlled use of fire are associated across the world in Homo erectus sites.

(4) The brain case of the Neanderthals was actually larger, on average, than that of anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens.

(5) The sort of racial differences that are widely recognized today were already in evidence in the early Paleolithic.


QQ While it is still a matter of debate, mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates that all modern Homo sapiens are descended from ancestors who lived in:

(1) Africa.

(2) Asia.

(3) the Middle East.

(4) Polynesia.

(5) Australia.


QQ The co-evolution of human morphology and culture refers to:                     

(1) The fact that, until the Late Paleolithic, around 40,000 ya, changes in hominid culture were accompanied by changes in gross morphology, such as dentition and the brain case.

(2) Cultural takeoff and the lack of change in morphology since that time.

(3) Fialkowski's hypothesis regarding expansion of the brain case in the transition to H. erectus.

(4) The final development of upright posture with the emergence of H. sapiens.

(5) The lack of tool use by early hominids


QQ What is the evidence for tool use among the earliest hominids?

(1) Studies of tool use and tool making in modern primates, like chimpanzees.

(2) Stone tools found with the earliest Australopithecines.

(3) Changes in the morphology of the thumb in Homo habilis that indicate adaptation to tool making, which indicates a much earlier beginning for the use of tools.

(4) Australopithecines had a brain case about midway in size between modern chimps and modern humans, indicating a highly developed ability to make tools.

(5). There is no evidence for tool use among the earliest hominids. Hominids did not use tools until about 2.6 mya, several million years after the earliest hominids.


QQ How many species and subspecies of hominid have inhabited the earth in the last 35,000 years?

(1) 1

(2) 2

(3) 3

(4) 4

(5) 5


QQ Homo sapiens have been the only hominid species for at least the last 35,000 years, but our ancestor Homo erectus was the dominant hominid, largely unchanged, for some:

(1) 1.4 million years.

(2) 3.0 million years.

(3) 0.5 million years.

(4) 250,000 years.

(5) 100,000 years.


QQ The land mass that connected Asia and America during the last ice age and served as a passage way for human migration was called:

(1) Beringia.

(2) Alaska.

 (3) Atlantis.

(4) the glacial corridor.

(5) the continental shelf.


QQ The earliest stone tool tradition in North America is:

(1) Clovis, with characteristic fluted points.

(2) Folsom, based on the intensive consumption of seeds.

(3) Associated with mammoth hunting in what is today Alaska.

(4) About 60,000 years old.

(5) Found mainly to the east of the Mississippi River.


QQ The earliest people in North America :

(1) Came across the Bering Straits during the Wisconsin glaciation.

(2) Were intensive gatherers in search of new plant resources.

(3) Came across the Bering Straits during the Wisconsin glaciation.

(4) Arrived in small dugout boats by accident from the Pacific islands.

(5) Originally came from the west coast of Africa to South America, arriving in North America in search of game.





QQ Which of the following statements about human skin color is NOT true?

(1) The amount of melanin in the skin affects the body's ability to process lactose

(2) The amount of melanin in the skin affects the body's production of vitamin D

(3) Light skin is at a selective disadvantage in the tropics because it is more susceptible to sunburn

(4) Light skin is at a selective disadvantage in the tropics because it is more susceptible to cancer

(5) Light skin absorbs more sunlight


QQ The focus on the range of variations in the biological characteristics of populations is called:

(1) Population thinking.

(2) Typological thinking.

(3) Racial evolution.

(4) Phenotypic thinking.

(5) Racial equilibrium.


QQ Which of the following is false:

(1) Institutionalized polyandry is found in about 30% of societies.

(2) The cost of raising children, including a college education, is now about half a million dollars for middle class families.

(3) Institutions like schools, churches, and welfare agencies have taken on many of the functions that families used to have.

(4) One explanation for the greater tolerance of homosexuality in the U.S. today is the antinatalist culture that has developed from the rising cost of raising children.

(5) The data from Acrury's study of rural Kentucky show that patterns of postmarital residence are influenced by changing economic conditions.


QQ High-altitude acclimatization is:

(1) Mostly a developmental response to the lack of oxygen, but also partly genetic.

(2) A genetic response to high altitude stress that does not have a developmental component.

(3) A development response to high altitudes that appears among Quechua and Aymara Indian children and is absent among children of European descent.

(4) All the answers are true.

 (5) A reduction in the size of the chest cavity, the heart, and the lungs in response to lack of rich oxygen. 


QQ Recent evidence suggests that:

(1) The rate at which any generation has children is largely determined by the extent to which having each additional child results in a net gain of benefits over costs for the average couple.

(2) Population always increases to the limits of production thereby condemning a large portion of humanity to poverty irrespective of any cultural intervention.

(3) Preindustrial cultures did not have any control over their reproductive rates.

(4) Fertility is generally lower among sedentary agriculturalists than among hunter-gatherers.

(5) All answers are false.


QQ The decline of fertility rates in the United States since the end of the 1950s is due mainly to:

(1) The increased costs and decreasing benefits of having children.

(2) The spread of the contraceptive pill.

(3) The baby boom of 1946–64 having created a sufficiently large population.

(4) The change in values caused by the women’s liberation movement.

(5) All answers are false.


QQ Hyperindustrial states such as the United States have experienced a fall in fertility rates because:

(1) there are increased costs and lower benefits associated with having children

(2) the modes of production have reached the point of diminishing return

(3) intensification of technology is no longer possible in those societies

(4) homosexuality has become more accepted

(5) people despair about the future


QQ Practices that have had an effect on regulating population size are:

(1) All answers are true.

(2) Care and treatment of fetuses, infants, and children.

(3) Care and treatment of girls and women and, to a lesser extent of, boys and men.

(4) Intensity and duration of lactation.

(5) Variations in the frequency of coital intercourse.


QQ The first demographic transition was:

(1) A population expansion during the Neolithic

(2) A population contraction during the Neolithic

(3) Adaptive radiation during the Paleolithic

(4) A population contraction during the Industrial Revolution

(5) A population expansion during the Industrial Revolution


QQ The range of longevity in the U.S.

(1) mirrors the range found across the world's nations, including many Third World nations

(2) is quite narrow and reflects the fact that the U.S. has historically had among the lowest infant mortality rates in the world

(3) shows that men now live as long as women do.

(4) is the consequence of an economic system that emphasizes the equal distribution of health care to everyone

(5) is evidence for the demographic consequences of industrialization


QQ IQ test score differences among racial groups show that:

(1) Correlations between so-called race and IQ scores are spurious because it has not been possible to control for the environmental and cultural differences to which different racial groups are exposed.

(2) Culture free tests have been developed to measure the effects of subordinated status on IQ test performance.

(3) Any two racial groups’ IQ scores can be usefully compared by matching the socioeconomic indicators of both groups.

(4) Low IQ rates in children are correlated with the strength of ethnic identity of parents.

(5) All answers are false.


QQ According to James Flynn (and hence the name "Flynn effect"), if IQ tests measured what they are said to measure, then

(1) children being born today are 30% smarter than their grandparents

(2) each generation has the same average intelligence as its predecessor

(3) athletes are increasing in intelligence compared to the general population

(4) socioeconomic factors are not significant in measuring intelligence

(5) the UF Class of '06 is not collectively as smart as the class of 1990


QQ According to Marvin Harris, the basic shift in U.S. attitudes toward sexuality can be described in terms of:

(1) An increasing separation of the hedonistic from the reproductive aspects of sexual relations.

(2) The increasing importance of pornography as a means of stimulating sexual fantasies and social relaxation.

(3) A noticeable increase of sexual activity, especially among gay groups and women.

(4) The relaxation of laws against homosexuality and the decreasing number of gay marriages.

(5) The spread of contraceptive programs addressed to all populations of reproductive age.


QQ According to lecture, the expression of homosexuality varies from time to time and from culture to culture:

(1) Depending on structural characteristics that favor or suppress natalist or antinatalist values 

(2) As a result of genetic variation  

(3) Depending on whether virginity is valued for unmarried women  

(4) Randomly  

(5) Demonstrating that there is no genetic component to homosexuality


QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) Women's contribution to subsistence rises with the intensity of agricultural production until the introduction of the plow and irrigation. After that, women's contribution to subsistence decreases dramatically.

(2) Women's contribution to subsistence is low in hunting and gathering societies. After the introduction of plow agriculture, women's contribution to subsistence, and their political power, is at its highest.

(3) Women's prestige in agricultural societies emerges from women's knowledge of how to grind and prepare grains.

(4) In societies where women's contribution to subsistence is high, women are likely to have low status because they are relegated to work at home.

(5) The Agta of the Philippines make it clear that women make better hunters than do men but are held back from this activity because of the child care imperative.


QQ Which of the following is true?

(1) In tropical latitudes, increased melanin minimizes the danger of hypervitaminosis D and the danger of skin cancer.

(2) Populations with higher amount of melanin have more resistance to low temperatures.

(3) Variation in the amount of melanin is the cause of sickle-cell anemia.

(4) According to Gogler's rule, animals tend to have less and less melanin toward the equator.

(5) Variation in the amount of melanin is a function of variation in diet.


QQ The biological component of human cultural variation, as well as the primacy of cultural, rather than biological, adaptation in modern humans, are both evident in:

(1) All answers are correct  

(2) The rise of sickle cell anemia in response to human intervention in the environment   

(3) The discovery of treatments for sickle-cell anemia and other inherited diseases  

(4) The fact that lactase deficient populations consume milk through the production of cheese and yogurt  

(5) None of these answer is correct


QQ The consumption of yogurt in some populations is a cultural adaptation to

(1) lactase deficiency

(2) high cholesterol diets

(3) hypervitaminosis D

(4) calcium deficiency

(5) a pastoral mode of production


QQ Skin color is an example of:

(1) phenotype

(2) genotype

(3) gene frequency

(4) genetic level

(5) social race


QQ Boas measured the head size and shape of the children of immigrants

(1) to prove the plasticity of phenotypes

(2) to prove the immutability of gene expression

(3) to prove that immigrants are smaller than native-born Americans

(4) to prove that head size is related to intelligence

(5) to prove the validity of the system of hypodescent


QQ The American hypodescent rule is defined as

(1) the automatic placing of the children of a union between members of different ethnic groups in the minority group

(2) the tendency of the majority group to discriminate against a person based on her or his phenotypical features

(3) the tendency of the majority group to discriminate against a person based on his or her genotypical features

(4) the ability of a person to change his or her racial status regardless of ethnicity

(5) the automatic placing of a children of a mixed union between members of different ethnic groups in the majority group


QQ Why are there 5 officially identified races in the United States and more than 300 in Brazil?

(1) Race is a sociocultural construct

(2) Brazil has had more immigration than the United States

(3) The United States has a more developed census mechanism

(4) Brazil lies on the equator

(5) The vastness of Amazonia has prevented gene flow

QQ Which of the following is true about color-based racial labels:

(1) All the answers are correct.

(2) terms don't accurately describe skin color.

(3) many populations don't fit into the three race scheme commonly used.

(4) race in humans has practically nothing to do with biology and everything to do with politics.

(5) race is a social construction.


QQ Which of the following is a major difference between Brazilian and American racial taxonomies?

(1) in the United States, social race is determined at birth and does not change, but in Brazil, social race can change from day to day

(2) American categories are based on phenotypes, while Brazilian categories are based on genotypes

(3) there are no important differences between the two taxonomies

(4) Brazilians do not recognize racial differences

(5) the American racial taxonomy is more fluid


QQ Which of the following is correct:

(1) All answers are correct

(2)  The concept of race, as it is commonly used, is a folkloric idea, not an idea that has scientific backing.

(3)  Many phenotypic features of humans - like dry vs. wet ear wax, for example - are at least as good as skin color in terms of creating typological races.

(4)  Race does not explain the shameful statistics on infant mortality among American Indians or African Americans in the inner cities, or violent crime or prison demography.

(5)  The concept of race is much like the concept of social class, or the concept of English as a language, for that matter. Each implies an aggregate of people who have something in common and in each case, diversity among the members of the group is ignored.


QQ What is the tripartite scheme?


(1) An early racial classification system outlining the three great races as yellow, black, and white.


(2) The collaboration of three early biological anthropologists to promote racist views.


(3) A system for classifying cultures of North America into groups.


(4) Three ways in which the biological basis of race can be tested and then proven.


(5) None of these answers are correct.


QQ The one-drop rule, hypodescent, and miscegenation are all components of which racial classification system discussed in class?


(1) The United States of America


(2) Brazil


(3) Japan


(4) Mayan


(5) Kenyan


QQ Landauer and Whiting discovered that across cultures, a one-time biologically stressful event in childhood resulted in increased height in males. This is an example of:

(1) cultural practices influencing biological outcomes

(2) gender bias in classical anthropological studies

(3) biological determinism

(4) a spurious false correlation

(5) an adaptive strategy designed to cope with physical pain


QQ John Whiting's theory relating child-rearing practices with some adult personality traits showed a statistical correlation between:

(1) Protein scarcity, nursing of children for 1 year or more, sleeping arrangements in which mother and child sleep together, patrilocality and severe male initiation rites.

(2) Monogamy, child training by women, matrilocality and female initiation rites.

(3) Polygyny, domestic arrangement in which the children sleep apart from both parents, male participation in child rearing and sexual identity.

(4) Protein abundance, child training by substitute mothers, nursing of children for less than three months and the prevalence of extended families.

(5) Polyandry, child training by both parents, sleeping arrangements in which parents and children sleep together and levels of intergender aggression.


QQ Sickle cell anemia is adaptive in some populations because:

(1) People who carry the heterozygous trait are less susceptible to malaria.

(2) It is a means for controlling population growth among hunter-gatherer populations.

(3) It allowed Saharan populations to develop resistance to desert conditions.

(4) It forces people to practice exogamy in order to improve their gene pool.

(5) It makes it possible to keep domestic animals even though those animals carry disease.


QQ Why does sickle-cell anemia persist in some parts of Africa?

(1) Heterozygotes for the trait gain protection from malaria  

(2) All of these are correct 

(3) Malaria is on the verge of being wiped out across Africa 

(4) There are no medical treatments for sickle-cell anemia 

(5) There is no genetic counseling in Africa


QQ Sickle-cell trait and lactase deficiency are examples of:

(1)  balanced polymorphisms

(2)  typological races

(3)  traits found primarily in South East Asian populations

(4)  developmental rather than genetic adaptation.

(5)  abnormal hemoglobins


QQ Bergman's Rule concerns:

(1) average human body weight in relation to average environmental temperature

(2) average human brain size in relation to average environmental temperature

(3) average percentage of melanin in skin relative to distance from the equator

(4) percentage of carbohydrates in the diet of Arctic dwellers

(5) average human height in relation to protein content of the diet


QQ Modern human body build and weight is subject to many cultural forces. Still, where average temperature is 70-82 degrees Fahrenheit, average weight is 110-120 pounds and where average temperature is 40 degrees Fahrenheit, average weight is 140 pounds. This is evidence for:

AA (1) Bergman’s.

(2) protein scarcity in cold climates.

(3) fat scarcity in warm climates.

(4) a diet rich in carbohydrates in cold climates.

(5) human reliance on hunting of large mammals in the tropics.


QQ The fact that most Kikuyu weigh less than most Inuit people is an example of

(1) Bergman's rule

(2) Allen's rule

(3) the importance of biology over culture

(4) the lack of influence of our environment on body type

(5) poor thermal regulation


QQ Which of the following is part of thermal regulation in humans?

(1) all answers are correct

(2) body shape

(3) limb size

(4) architectural features (like the composition of building materials)

(5) nutritional features (like the percentage of calories ingested from fat)


QQ To be heterozygous for the gene that controls sickle cell anemia means:

(1) greater resistance to both malaria than those without the gene

(2) total immunity to malaria

(3) total immunity to sickle cell anemia

(4) sure to suffer from malaria

(5) sure to suffer from sickle cell anemia


QQ More than 85 percent of variations in genes across populations are:

(1) variations across individuals

(2) variations across geographic races

(3) none of these answers are correct

(4) phenotypical

(5) life threatening


QQ Lack of melanin in the skin in northern latitudes:

(1) maximizes the production of Vitamin D

(2) minimizes the risk of skin cancer

(3) results in greater lactose intolerance

(4) aids directly in the absorption of calcium

(5) aids in the dissipation of body heat


QQ the larger lungs, chests, hearts and blood supply of people living above 12,000 feet appear to be primarily:

(1) developmental adaptations, with some genetic component

(2) genetically determined

(3) behaviorally determined

 (4) culturally determined

(5) none of the answers are correct


QQ What cultural advancement indirectly caused the spread of malaria throughout Africa:

(1) metal tools

(2) the wheel

(3) language

(4) lithic technology

(5) social races


QQ Lactase deficiency and milk intolerance:

(1) Is uncommon among northern European populations.

(2) Is not found among dairy farming societies.

(3) Is a cultural adaptation to the need to ingest Vitamin D and calcium.

(4) Is found among 10% of Chinese and West African populations.

(5) Occurs because some populations maintain the enzyme that breaks down lactose after the age of four.


QQ Lactose intolerance:

(1) occurs in many populations because children stop producing lactase after the age of four.

(2) is common among northern European populations

(3) cannot occur in dairy-farming populations

(4) produces cultural adaptations for thermoregulation

(5) is randomly distributed among individuals across all populations


QQ The drastic decline of Native Americans in the years following their first contact with Europeans was the result of:

(1) Exposure to previously unknown illnesses.

(2) Indians tried to resist colonization using weapons that were primitive compared to the firearms of the Europeans.

(3) Slavery and the breakup of families.

(4) A decline in fertility due to forced labor and extremely poor living conditions.

(5) The loss of subsistence land


QQ Which one of these statements is true?

(1) All are true.

(2) Race and intelligence are social concepts, neither of which has been well defined biologically.

(3) Though African Americans have higher death rates than whites, sicklemia accounts for 0.003 of the difference.

(4) The difference in coronary heart disease rates among women and men, once thought to be entirely genetic, is closing because of a convergence of behavioral traits.

(5) According to some human biologists, biological diversity across so-called races accounts for just 6% of the biological diversity of humankind.


QQ The idea of  “race” as applied to modern humans

(1) All of these are correct

(2) Accounts for a very small fraction of the biological differences in humans

(3) Is a social concept

(4) Is a continuous change in phenotypes and genotypes across space

(5) Is nonconcordant with respect to pairs of specific features


QQ A 2x2 table of household type in the United States shows that an African American is 2/3 more likely to come from a single-parent household. This proves:

(1) nothing because the association might be influenced by a 3rd variable such as socioeconomic status

(2) that single parenthood is an immutable feature of African American culture

(3) that the correlation between the two variables is so strong that one of them causes the other

(4) that the association is probably not spurious because of its strong statistical character

(5) that census statistics support teleological explanations


QQ According to lecture, one factor that accounts for the pervasive phenomenon of racism in American society is that:

(1) it appears to serve a continuing economic function

(2) the studies of Boas, Klineberg, and others, refuting racism, were difficult to interpret

(3) human economic behavior is rooted in biology

(4) it is part of our culture

(5) the nature vs. nurture debate has not been settled in anthropology


QQ In 1935, Klineberg reexamined the data on IQ in America and concluded that the scores were driven by socioeconomic, not biological factors. Which of the following statements is NOT part of Klineberg's conclusions:

(1) blacks with higher IQ migrated to the north

(2) tests discriminated against both southern blacks and whites

(3) people in the north scored systematically better than in the south

(4) some blacks living in the north scored better than some whites in the south

(5) the nonindustrialized south did not have the schooling advantages found in the north


QQ Which of the following is most likely NOT to have any affect on scores on IQ tests?

(1) Biological differences across populations called races  

(2) Differences in individual ability  

(3) Quality of schools  

(4) Cultural background  

(5) Socioeconomic background


QQ Margaret Mead's study of gender roles in New Guinea showed that:

(1) Culture, not biology, determines the assignment of gender roles in human societies.

(2) The Mundugumur divided gender roles strictly and were highly aggressive.

(3) Among the Tchambuli, men as well as women exhibited feminine attitudes and were very concerned with their appearance.

(4) The assumptions, prevalent in her day, about gender roles in America were by and large correct and could be extended to most cultures of the world.

(5) The Oedipus complex was based, as Freud had predicted, on certain universal fears about sexuality.


QQ Sex is a ________________ based construction while gender is a ______________ constructed concept.

(1) Biologically, culturally


(2) Phenotypically, genetically


(3) Culturally, biologically


(4) Genetically, phenotypically


(5) Biologically, genetically


QQ Nancy Scheper-Hughes studied mothers in northeast Brazil and found that:

(1) Women hasten the death of their children through neglect

(2) The women did everything possible to prevent their children from dying

(3) Women had children because they didn't know how to avoid pregnancy

(4) Mother's love and nurturing tendencies are natural and universal

(5) Women didn't know enough about hygiene for their babies to survive


QQ According to Margaret Mead:

(1) The restlessness of adolescence is not biological but is culturally conditioned, particularly by varying forms of sexual repression.

(2) Adolescence is a stage of human development that presents the same basic traits in all cultures.

(3) In Samoa the adolescent period was difficult for young males because of the lack of job opportunities for them.

(4) Sexual freedom increases rebelliousness among adolescent girls.

(5) All answers are false.


QQ All of the following theories appear to account for some part of currently observed gender differences across the world except:

(1) The testosterone poisoning theory

(2) The strength theory  

(3) The compatibility with childcare theory   

(4) The economy of effort theory  

(5) The expendability of men theory


QQ From Peggy Sanday's work, it appears that in societies where the plow is a primary component of agriculture:

(1) Women's contribution to subsistence goes down and men are consequently valued more than women  

(2) Women's contribution to subsistence goes up and is indicated by some form of "bride price"

(3) Women's increased status is marked by an absence of restrictions on female sexuality  

(4) The TFR (total fertility rate) for women drops dramatically 

(5) Women are forced to pay exorbitant dowries in order to get married  


QQ Peggy Sanday showed that the introduction of the plow led to an increase in men's contribution to subsistence and the consequent lowering of women's status in society. Why did this happen?

(1)  Two answers are correct

(2)  Women have more children under intensive agriculture. This draws women away from subsistence activities.

(3)  Intensive agriculture is based on grain, which has to be dried for storage, making it more time consuming to prepare and cook. This draws women away from subsistence activities.

(4)  Men have greater upper body strength and so are more suited to using the plow. This leaves women out of subsistence activities.

(5)  Plow agriculture produces a surplus. Women lose status whenever the technology of production produces a surplus.


QQ Which of the following is the most plausible reason for the fact that household work for women increases under intensive agriculture?

(1) Intensive agriculture places a premium on children, and increased fertility keeps women at home  

(2) Women are required to plow as well as do household chores 

(3) The increase in infant mortality means there are fewer children to help with household chores

(4) Men spend less time hunting, and more time at home making a mess  

(5) Polygyny decreases, meaning fewer adults to share household chores


QQ Which of the following statements about gender differences among tropical and semitropical foragers is true?

(1) Women's work usually contributes more to the diet than does men's work and there is consequently less gender stratification.

(2) The status of women is much lower than it is among northern foragers like the Eskimo.

(3) The distinction between public and domestic spheres of activity is much sharper than it is in most horticultural societies.

(4) There is no sex-based division of labor.

(5) Women never take part in hunting.


QQ In general, what happens as the value of bride wealth increases?

(1) Marriages become more stable.

(2) Marriages become more volatile.

(3) Marriages become more frequent.

(4) Marriages become less frequent.

(5) Marriages become more symbolic.


QQ The best explanation for the bride burnings in India is:

(1) the pressures created by using dowry as a vehicle for female hypergamy

(2) the government's ban on dowry

(3) families of both the bride and groom decide that the marriage should end

(4) the bride's family takes retaliation against her for failing to produce sons

 (5) the bride's family needs to recover the dowry in order to marry off another daughter


QQ The custom of dowry occurs in only about three percent of the world's societies. Which of the follow statements about dowry are true?

AA (1) It has been technically illegal in India and in Greece for decades, but persists today

(2) It occurs when women contribute a great deal to subsistence.

(3) It is usually just a token gift by the brides family to the groom’s family of relatively inexpensive items like bedding.

(4) Dowry deaths in India have been stamped out by strong police work.

(5) It replaces bride price in the shift from pastoral to agricultural subsistence.

QQ Antinatalist societies are expected to display all of the following except:

(1) intolerance of homosexuality

(2) availability of abortion

(3) low birthrate

(4) easy access to birth control technology

(5) relatively high average marriage age.


QQ Antinatalism comes and goes over time in complex societies. This broad cultural orientation depends on:

(1) structural and infrastructural changes

(2) changes in ideas about family size

(3) changes in ideas about sexual orientation

(4) better understanding between individuals with different values

(5) the realization that all members of society are entitled to share equally in the resources available


QQ The term _____ refers to the way each culture defines being male or female

(1) gender

(2) sex

(3) sexual dimorphism

(4) dichotomy

(5) emic sexual relativism


QQ Which type of society is least likely to have a pronounced system of gender stratification?

(1) matrilineal with uxorilocality

(2) virilocal

(3) patrilineal with virilocality

(4) neolocal

(5) bilateral


QQ Cross culturally it is the men who almost always:

(1) make musical instruments

(2) milk animals

(3) preserve meat and fish

(4) pick berries

(5) make leather products


QQ Cross-culturally, men usually control the making of musical instruments. This is explained by some scholars in terms of a theory of gender roles based on

(1) economy of effort

(2) compatibility with child care

(3) sexual dimorphism

(4) the biological expendability of men

(5) all answers are correct


QQ Major theories of gender role differences include:

(1) all answers are correct

(2) compatibility of female biology with child care

(3) economy of effort (e.g. women doing housework because they are less mobile with children)

(4) expendability (e.g. men going to combat because they're expendable)

(5) differences in body strength


QQ Gender roles are all of the following EXCEPT:

(1) determined by sex.

(2) fluid.

(3) culturally determined.

(4) historically sensitive.

(5) variable.

QQ Which of the following is a variety of plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband:

(1) polyandry

(2) polygamy

(3) Polygyny

(4) serial monogamy

(5) bigamy


QQ Here are some lists of marriage systems. Which list is in correct order, from most common to least common?


(1) Polygyny, monogamy, polyandry.


(2) Monogamy, polyandry, polygyny.


(3) Polyandry, monogamy, polygyny.


(4) Polygyny, polyandry, monogamy.


(5) Monogamy, polygyny, polyandry.


QQ Carole Ember's study of household chores among Luo children showed that, among the Luo:

(1) girls' chores were assigned to boys when there was a shortage of girls

(2) gender roles are the reverse of those found in our own society

(3) chores are assigned according to the strength of the child

(4) male children were thought of as expendable

(5) female children had a lower status


QQ From an anthropological standpoint:

(1) Cross-cultural variation in gender roles prevents any single culture from serving as the model for what is natural in the realm of sex.

(2) The gender identity of human beings can be established by examining an individual's hormones, internal and external sex organs, and secondary sexual characteristics.

(3) The level of sexual activity is the same in all cultures.

(4) All answers are correct.

(5) While male homosexual behavior is as varied as heterosexual behavior, female homosexuality is rare and restricted to adolescent sexual experimentation.





QQ Both Oldowan pebble tools (2.5MYA) and Acheulian hand axes (1.5 to 0.5 MYA) are examples of core tools but only the hand axes are:

(1) bifaced tools.

(2) ground tools.

(3) Levalloisian tools.

(4) flake tools.

(5) Upper Paleolithic tools.


QQ What are the earliest stone tools called?


(1) Oldowan pebble tools


(2) Habilis lithics


(3) Flint sherds


(4) Paleocene lithics


(5) Cenezoic tools


QQ Some of the earliest stone tools are found at Hadar, Ethiopia around:

(1) 2.5 million ya.

(2) 1 million ya.

(3) 4 million ya.

(4) 500,000 ya.

(5) 200,000 ya. 


QQ The Oldowan tradition:

(1) Is the oldest stone tool-making tradition known.

(2) Shows that the earliest hominids were hunters .

(3) Shows that early hominids developed in several parts of the world during the Pleistocene .

(4) Is evidence of the Asian origin of Homo erectus .

(5) Provides evidence of the expansion of hominids from Africa to Asia.


QQ The stone tool tradition that dominated most of the Lower Paleolithic is called the:

(1) Acheulian.

(2) Oldowan.

(3) Mousterian.

 (4) Cro-Magnon.

(5) Beringian.


QQ The Mousterian tool assemblage shows that:

(1) Humans developed increasingly efficient use of lithic resources.

(2) Humans remained scavengers and collectors and did not develop hunting until late in the Paleolithic.

(3) Social hierarchies, based on the possession of hunting grounds, were present in the middle Paleolithic.

(4) Neanderthals had neither stable nor seasonal residences but were nomadic.

(5) Humans could not develop agriculture because their tools were too primitive.


QQ What is the correct sequence of Old-World tool traditions?

(1) Oldowan-Acheulian-Levalloisian.

(2) Acheulian-Oldowan-Mousterian

(3) Levalloisian-Acheulian-Oldowan.

(4) Mousterian-Levalloisian-Acheulian.

(5) Acheulian-Mousterian-Oldowan.


QQ Flexed burials from the Middle Paleolithic are sometimes taken as evidence of a belief in the hereafter. Another reason for flexed burials is that:

(1) Small holes are easier to dig, particularly with stone tools.

(2) Land was a precious commodity in the Middle Paleolithic.

(3) The flexed position is caused by rigor mortis.

(4) Malnutrition causes people to die in a flexed position.

(5) None of these answers is correct.


QQ That Lower Paleolithic humans had a cognitive understanding of what an Acheulian tool should look like can be inferred from the fact that:

(1) the tools are standardized

(2) Acheulian tools are associated with spears

(3) language was required to manufacture those tools

(4) these tools made possible the production of ceramics

(5) blades are twice as long as they are wide


QQ The missing paws on animals found at the Moldova site, shows that early Homo sapiens, during the Middle Paleolithic:

(1) Had probably developed clothing made of skins that were sewn together.

(2) Practiced ritual cannibalism.

(3) Had developed a religion based on worship of forest animals.

(4) Lived in caves rather than in houses.

(5) First emerged in Europe and then migrated to African and Asia.


QQ The lithic culture based on pebble tools and on biface hand axes is called the:

(1) Acheulian.

(2) Mousterian.

(3) Upper Paleolithic.

(4) Olduverian.

(5) Middle Paleolithic.


QQ Which of the following statements describes a difference between Oldowan and Acheulian tools?

(1) Acheulian tools are made from more elaborately worked cores and refined flakes

(2) Oldowan tools show an increase in size and a focus on hunting

(3) Acheulian tools constitute a move away from wood toward more plastic media, such as clay

(4) Acheulian tools show increasingly elaborate representations of the human form on the non-functional surfaces

(5) all of these answers are correct


QQ The end of the Paleolithic cultural horizon is marked by:

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) Broad-spectrum exploitation of the environment.

(3) The final retreat of the Wurm and Wisconsin glaciers.

(4) The production of smaller lithic tools.

(5) The extinction of Pleistocene megafauna.


QQ What was the Wurm?

(1) the last European glacial period in the Pleistocene

(2) the region of Kenya where the first australopithecine fossils were found

(3) the time period during which the australopithecines lived

(4) the time period when Homo first appeared

(5) the earliest part of the Pleistocene


QQ According to the Pleistocene overkill hypothesis, the final blow in the extinction of the wooly mammoth was

(1) human hunting

(2) the end of the Ice Age

(3) change in food type and availability

(4) the invention of guns

(5) increased population of the mammoths


QQ The intensification of tool making during the Upper Paleolithic age appears to have contributed to:

(1) the disappearance of Pleistocene megafauna

(2) the development of clans or extended kinship groups

(3) increased migration from Africa

(4) cave dwelling

(5) metallurgy


QQ Paul Martin's Pleistocene overkill hypothesis might account for:

(1) The disappearance of Pleistocene megafauna in many parts of the world, soon after the arrival of humans

(2) The presence of microliths in the Paleolithic

(3) The possible relation between language and the Levallois technique

(4) The religious practices of late Mousterian hominids

(5) The disappearance of Neandertals


QQ The disappearance of Pleistocene megafauna can be attributed to two principle causes, the efficiency of Upper Paleolithic hunters and:

(1) change in climate with the end of the Pleistocene

(2) destructive patterns of mutual preying.

(3) disease.

(4) inability to adapt to climatological change.

(5) low propagation rates due to mutation.


QQ The Upper Paleolithic:

(1) all answers are correct

(2) saw the appearance of the atlatl

(3) was characterized by extensive use of the environment, including marine resources

(4) comes before the Mesolithic and settled life

(5) was characterized by low population growth


QQ The great advantage of the atlatl is that:

(1)  it increases thrust and permits penetration of animal skin from a greater distance

(2)  it eliminated the need for intensive collection of plant resources

(3)  it increased the life expectancy of juvenile Pleistocene megafaua

(4)  it was invented after the Pleistocene megafauna went extinct and made broad spectrum exploitation possible

(5)  two answers are correct


QQ Compound tools first appear during:

(1) The upper Paleolithic

(2) The middle Paleolithic

(3) The Mesolithic

(4) The Neolithic

(5) The Acheulian


QQ The Washington State University experiment with students who were taught flint knapping (making of stone tools), indicates that Lavallois tools were probably made by a culture that had:

(1) rudimentary language.

(2) complex division of labor.

(3) atlatls and other implements for hurling projectile points.

(4) metallurgy.

(5) ground tool technology.


QQ In the language-and-tool-making experiment reported in lecture, students were not able to produce _________ tools without verbal instruction:

(1) Levallois

(2) Mousterian

(3) Acheulean

(4) Oldowan

(5) Bronze


QQ From experimental evidence, it appears that the Levallois method:

(1) Required the development of complex language skills.

(2) Can not be taught with language but must be taught by mimicry.

(3) Is easily learned by any modern Homo sapien.

(4) Is highly destructive of lithic resources.

(5) Contributed to the disappearance of the Neanderthals.


QQ The significance of the Levallois method is that:

(1) It made human beings much more efficient exploiters of their environment and required or co-evolved with the development of languages.

(2) It is the first evidence of the development of a lithic tool tradition.

(3) It shows that human beings were making weapons of war during the middle Paleolithic.

(4) It is associated with the first manifestations of religious and ritual life among humans.

(5) It allowed for the setting up of more sophisticated forms of political and social organization. 


QQ Levalloisian tools were more efficient than earlier tools as measured by:

(1) centimeters of edge/kilogram of stone.

(2) longevity of the people who made those tools.

(3) the time it takes to butcher animals.

(4) the size of the animals that could be hunted with those tools.

(5) amount of tool debris in houses of the time.


QQ Which of the following is NOT true about the Lavallois method?

(1) it was only found in southern France

(2) the core can be carried around and tools can be made on the spot

(3) language probably was needed to transmit the technique to others

(4) the way the flake comes off the core is counter-intuitive

(5) it was a great advance in tool making


QQ Which of the following is correct? The Levallois technique was:


(1) An early attempt in human history at mass production and standardization.


(2) The first capitalist economic model.


(3) A way in which early humans formed social groups.


(4) An innovative way of hunting megafauna.


(5) A new way of raising children and extending maturation.


QQ Although dates differ from one continent to another, cultural evolution is marked by:

(1) similar cultural horizons.

(2) the importance of random events.

(3) a stage in which most people lived in caves.

(4) genetic responses.

(5) stability.


QQ The stone tool assemblage most strongly associated with early Homo erectus is:

(1) Acheulean

(2) Mousterian

(3) Levallois

(4) Oldowan

(5) Aurignacian

QQ The Middle Paleolithic tool-making tradition associated with Neanderthals is called the:


(1) Mousterian


(2) Oldowan


(3) Acheulian


(4) Magdalenian


(5) Clovis


QQ Perhaps the most important contribution to the advancement of human cultural evolution that we find during the Aurignacian takeoff is the presence of the earliest known (40,000–30,000 ya) examples of:

(1) representational art.

(2) fire making tools.

(3) blade technology.

(4) village settlements.

(5) clothing.


QQ A vital ingredient for the cultural take-off of humankind was:

(1) The human capacity for semantic universality.

(2) The need to migrate to different ecological niches.

(3) The attainment of bipedalism.

(4) The fact that only human use tools.

(5) A demographic crisis.


QQ The term cultural takeoff refers to the fact that:


(1) Cultural differences and similarities can arise or disappear entirely independently of changes in genotypes.


(2) Changes in human habitats are caused by migration.


(3) Bipedalism made tool using possible.


(4) Opposable thumbs made tool making possible.


(5) The first demographic transition brought an end to population expansion.


QQ The Upper Paleolithic period, perhaps due in part to the disappearance of some types of fauna and population growth, human groups began to adapt to a broader spectrum of food sources, which led to the Neolithic discovery that changed the fundamental nature of human living patterns and created conditions for the possibility of complex civilization. This discovery was:

(1) agriculture.

(2) metallurgy.

(3) astronomy.

(4) mathematics.

(5) the wheel.


QQ Why was the broad-spectrum revolution a significant event in human evolution?

(1) it occurred in response to new environmental circumstances and established behavior patterns that led to plant cultivation

(2) it led to the extinction of the Neanderthals, who had survived by eating big game animals

(3) it established the environmental circumstances that selected for the evolution of "Mitochondrial Eve"

(4) it consists of a massive fluorescence of multicolored cave paintings beginning around 70,000 B.P., which suggests the evolution of color vision and a truly human-style brain organization

(5) all of these are true


QQ The use of mammoth bones to construct houses in northern Europe is evidence that:

(1) a long coexistence of humans with these animals was achieved by some populations.

(2) mammoths were hunted to extinction.

(3) the climate of the area was much warmer than previously thought.

(4) people of that time were already experimenting with agricultural intensification.

(5) a cult-like religion had developed.


QQ The most accepted interpretation of the so-called Venus figurines is that

(1) they indicate recognition of the importance of female fecundity and fertility.

(2) men developed early political control of society.

(3) women were the priests in the religions of early populations.

(4) early populations sought magical control over fertility.

(5) early populations did not recognize the role of men in fertility.


QQ An important difference between the Old and New World Upper Paleolithic is that

(1) in the New world it occurred several thousand years later.

(2) in the Old world it was accompanied by the formation of glaciers, while in the New World the glaciers were absent.

(3) the Old World the Paleolithic was followed by the development of agriculture, but this did not happen independently in the New World.

(4) the Upper Paleolithic was much longer in the New world than in the Old World.

(5) in the Old World it was followed by the development of true states, while this did not happen in the New World until the coming of Europeans.





QQ After cultural takeoff,

(1) cultural differences and similarities could arise or disappear entirely independently of changes in genotypes

(2) the human species arrived at the end of its biological evolution

(3) cultural and biological evolution became equally important for modern human adaptation to the environment

(4) human beings adapted to new environments by modifying their genotypes

(5) all these answers are correct


QQ The archeological evidence at Ali Kosh in Iran and at Tehuacán in Mexico shows that:

(1) There is a similar pattern in the causes and consequences of major cultural horizons, irrespective of absolute time.

(2) A different pattern in the causes and consequences of cultural horizons due to differences in absolute time.

(3) Animal domestication came before agriculture in the New World, while it came prior to agriculture in the Old World.

(4) Agricultural villages developed in the New World without a period of broad spectrum use of the environment.

(5) Agriculture was invented once, in the Fertile Crescent about 12,000 years ago, but spread quickly to the rest of the world.


QQ The broad spectrum revolution refers to the

(1) diversification of food technologies at the end of the Paleolithic to include cereals.

(2) achievement of symbolic means, primarily the capacity for advanced languages, to represent abstract ideas.

(3) increased reliance on agriculture rather than on hunting and gathering.

(4) ability of humans to domesticate food resources.

(5) use of representational systems of writing.


QQ When did food production, (cultivations of plants and the domestication of animals) first take place?


(1) 10000-12000 years ago


(2) 5000-7000 years ago


(3) 13000-15000 years ago


(4) 17000-20000 years ago


(5) 1500-3500 years ago


QQ Early technology for intensive gathering did not immediately result in settled village life. One reason may have been that

(1) effective storage technology took longer to develop.

(2) early agricultural technology depleted soil nutrients too quickly for settled life to develop.

(3) ceramic technology was required for settled life, and this did not come until much later.

(4) gathering can only lead to village life if animals are also domesticated, and this took several thousand years longer.

(5) intensive gathering can lead to village life only after selection by humans of varieties that resist frost and other environmental threats.


QQ The domestication of crops like maize and wheat, and the selection of only the best varieties, has resulted in

(1) those plants no longer being able to reproduce without human intervention.

(2) a loss of nutritional value in those domesticates.

(3) the acquisition by those domesticates of traits that make them more esthetically pleasing but unproductive.

(4) the lessening of importance of the basic forces of natural selection.

(5) an increase in genetic diversity among plants of the world.


QQ The Fertile Crescent is

(1) a region in the Near East where the first urban settlements are found.

(2) the name of an early civilization in western Turkey.

(3) the region of Europe were fertility cults first developed.

(4) the name given to the bend of the Huang-Ho River in China where early civilization developed.

(5) a mountainous region that contains the origins of Egyptian culture.


QQ The earliest agricultural intensification

(1) resulted in lower living standards and a decrease in population.

(2) was accompanied by the development of theocratic states.

(3) required the development of irrigation technology.

(4) was not accompanied by settlement in villages.

(5) shows no evidence of human intervention in the development of plant or animal species.


QQ Coprolites are a source of information about:

(1) the food consumption patterns of prehistoric populations.

(2) Olduwan pebble tools.

(3) early religious practices.

(4) the manufacture of the earliest stone tools.

(5) the Levallois technique.


QQ Which one of these statements is true:

(1) All answers are true.

(2) The potato, a tuber originally from the Andean highlands, was highly successful in Europe where it became the food of the poor.

(3) The potato was easily introduced in Ireland because it can grow in calcarine and thin soils and, therefore, it is easy to cultivate in marginal lands.

(4) The failure of the potato crop in 1845-47 was the main cause of the wave of Irish migration to North America.

(5) During the first period of industrialization in Europe the potato became a life saver because workers could cultivate it in their backyard.


QQ Which of the following was a major cause of the Neolithic demographic shift?

(1) Agriculture reduced the cost of rearing children

(2) Agriculture increased the cost of male children

(3) Agriculture initially shortened life expectancy

(4) Agriculture initially increased rates of disease

(5) Agriculture increased the cost of female children


QQ Which of the following is false:

(1) By the Middle Paleolithic, human beings migrated all over the planet and succeeded adapting to every ecological niche exclusively by cultural means.

(2) The broad spectrum revolution occurred in Southwestern Asia, began about 18,000 ya and meant the intensification of production.

(3) The earliest evidence of domestication of plants dates from about 12,000 ya.

(4) Bipedalism, upright position and narrowing of the pelvis among hominid were adaptations to environmental conditions.

(5) Domestication of plants and animals preceded settled agricultural life in some parts of the world.


QQ Flexible rachis was the selection criterion leading to:

(1) The domestication of wheat.

(2) The choice of new settlements.

(3) The first manifestations of representational art.

(4) The practice of fertility control among hunter gatherers.

(5) The choice of gathering grounds.


QQ Which one of these statements is true:

(1) Corn, a domesticated plant, was successfully exported from America to other continents because it grows in any kind of soil and is highly nutritious.

(2) Corn was domesticated in South America 1,000 ya and exported to Central America where it spread to Mexico.

(3) Even though corn is a successful crop in North and South America, it has not been possible to adapt it to African soils.

(4) The casava, a root originally from East Africa, was brought to America by Africans who arrived as slaves.

(5) Sugar cane was brought to America because sugar provides lots of calories and its production does not require a large labor force.


QQ Which of the following statements is correct?

(1) Corn was first domesticated in Mexico, perhaps 7000 ya.

(2) Corn was domesticated in Peru 1,000 ya.

(3) It has not been possible to adapt corn to African soils.

(4) Corn was domesticated in Mexico within 1000 years of the first migrations across the Bering Straits.

(5) Sugar cane was first domesticated in Brazil.


QQ The conditions for the development of primary states are:

(1) dense populations, intensifiable modes of production, trade, storable grains, circumscription, and intense warfare

(2) warfare, long-distance trade, and the absence of hierarchies

(3) prevalence of the nuclear family over extended kin, sparse population and storable grains

(4) lack of any agricultural surplus, intense warfare, thought control and rural settlements

(5) extensive agriculture, migratory movements and the absence of either armies or organized religions

QQ All of the following are characteristics of the rise of state level societies except:

(1) a reliance of writing systems.

(2) increased food production from irrigation.

(3) increased population density.

(4) economies managed by central leadership.

(5) labor specialization.


QQ Mesopotamia, Moche, and Teotihuacan are locations of some

of the first:


(1) States


(2) Chiefdoms


(3) Villages


(4) Empires


(5) Unions


QQ In the final analysis, what preserves the differentiation of socioeconomic status between rich and poor in a state society?

(1) military force.

(2) ideological propaganda.

(3) naivete of the masses.

(4) dialectic materialism.

(5) sports spectacles.


QQ Anthropological theories of why the Mayan civilization disappeared include all of the following except:

(1) disease brought on by contact with European explorers.

(2) warfare among city states.

(3) peasant revolts and disruption of trade routes.

(4) drought and silting up of fresh water sources.

(5) intensification of agriculture beyond sustainable fertility levels.


QQ Which of the following does NOT describe where these foods were domesticated?

(1) North America: soybeans

(2) Africa: yams and sorghum

(3) Southeast Asia: rice

(4) Middle East: wheat and barley

(5) Mediterranean: olives


QQ One of the earliest by-products of experiments with the domestication and storage of grain was probably:

(1) beer

(2) decreased infant mortality

(3) improved hygiene in camps

(4) the plow

(5) irrigation


QQ Farming and herding most likely originated:

(1) in optimal areas where abundant wild cereals were available

(2) in marginal areas were food production was less than optimal

(3) after people became sedentary

(4) in the late Paleolithic

(5) in the Sahara during the Ice Age


QQ Regarding the domestication of animals in the New World:

(1) none of the answers are correct

(2) agriculture was invented twice in the New World, once by early big game hunters, and then again after the megafauna had gone extinct.

(3) llamas and alpacas were domesticated first in North America and later in South America

(4) the only source of animal protein in pre-Columbian South American were guinea pigs and ducks

 (5) the Clovis people domesticated some of the late Pleistocene fauna, but those fauna became extinct


QQ The basic conditions for the formation of state society include all of the following except:

(1) representative government.

(2) population density.

(3) intensifiable modes of production.

(4) trade.

(5) food storage.


QQ The main thought control apparatus of preindustrial states consisted of:

(1) Magical and religious institutions and participation in the pomp of the state.

(2) Compulsory universal education and threat of incarceration.

(3) Propaganda diffused through the media and censorship.

(4) Military draft and compulsory universal education.

(5) All answers are true. 


QQ With one exception among the following, primary states developed in river valleys. Which is the exception?

(1) Mexico

(2) China

(3) India

(4) Iraq

(5) Egypt


QQ All of the following contributed to the reliance on early farming in the Mexican highlands except:

(1) forager transportation of wild grasses to environments outside their natural habitats.

(2) genetic changes in wild teocintle.

(3) an increased reliance on wild maize.

(4) a population explosion triggered by early farming.

(5) a widespread decrease in wild animals to hunt due to over-exploitation.

QQ All early states appear to have been:

(1) theocractic

(2) democratic

(3) matriarchal

(4) dependent on writing as the basis for taxation

(5) based on the control of irrigation technology by an elite


QQ An independent origin for New World agriculture is indicated by the fact that:

(1) major New World plant domesticates were unknown in the Old World.

(2) animal traction was unknown in the New World.

(3) the wheel was not used as a tool in the New World.

(4) New World agriculture was organized by a superior mathematical and calendrical system.

 (5) crops from the Western Hemisphere will not grow in the Eastern Hemisphere and vice versa.


QQ Plant domestication in the New World most likely originated by:

(1) Independent invention

(2) Diffusion across the Bering land bridge (Beringia)

(3) Diffusion from Egypt

(4) Diffusion from Japan

(5) Diffusion from Europe


QQ The earliest large chiefdom of North America was Cahokia, which was located:

(1) on the Mississippi River.

(2) in Alaska.

(3) in the desert southwest.

(4) in western Pennsylvania.

(5) on the Gulf Coast of Florida. 


QQ The largest preColumbian empire of the New World in terms of population and geographical extension was the:

(1) Inca.

(2) Aztec.

(3) Maya.

(4) Toltec.

(5) Mochica.


QQ Which of the following Mesoamerican cultures is the first stratified society with the ability to build ceremonial architecture based on command labor?

(1) the Olmecs

(2) the Zapotecs of the Oaxaca Valley

(3) the Aztecs

(4) the Mayans of Yucatan

(5) the people of Teotihuacán  


QQ The first imperial state in the new world was located at:

(1) La Venta.

(2) Cahokia.

(3) Tikal.

(4) Cuzco.

(5) Teotihuacan.


QQ What is the name of the former Aztec capital that is today Mexico City?


(1) Tenochtitlan


(2) Teotihuacan


(3) Monte Alban


(4) Tula


(5) La Venta


QQ The shift from Mesolithic to Neolithic and from Neolithic to urbanization involved:

(1) intensification of technology of production.

(2) egalitarian governance.

(3) the presence of Pleistocene megafauna.

(4) movement from broad spectrum foraging to hunter/gatherer foraging.

(5) migration from the Old World to the New World.


QQ The major feature of the transition of from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic was:

AA S (1) the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture.

(2) the rise of state level societies.

(3) the rapid spread of human populations on all continents.

(4) the appearance of monumental architecture.

(5) All of these answers are correct.


QQ The Mesolithic period had a characteristic tool type that allowed for widespread innovations in subsistence activities. This tool type was called:

(1) the microlithic

(2) the Oldowan

(3) the Acheulian

(4) the Mousterian

(5) the handaxe

QQ During the Mesolithic, humans primarily subsisted on:

(1) Broad-based hunting, gathering, and fishing

(2) Mammoths

(3) Domesticated plants

(4) Domesticated animals, particularly the dog

(5) Insects


QQ Which of the following is correct?


(1) All of these are major differences between wild and domesticated plants.


(2) The seeds of domesticated plants are often larger than those of wild plants.


(3) Domesticated plants often lose their natural mechanisms for seed dispersal.


(4) Wild plants have weaker connective tissue holding their seed pods to the stem than do domestic plants.


(5) Domesticated plants (the actual plants) are frequently larger than the same wild varieties.


QQ Agriculture:

(1) was developed independently as many as 5 or 6 times.

(2) had different consequences on leisure and population growth in different parts of the world.

(3) resulted in a shift from hierarchical to egalitarian social structure.

(4) swept the world around 14,000 years ago.

(5) was first developed in the New World by the Incas, around 1000 years before Columbus.


QQ Kent Flannery's explanation for why people settled down during the Mesolithic transition is based on which of the following questions?

(1) Where do you go with a ton of wheat?

(2) How many children can a woman bear in a lifetime?

(3) What are the consequences of infanticide?

(4) How do people escape a cultural horizon?

(5) How many meters of blade edge can you get from a kilogram of lithic material?


QQ Who was the scientist who rejected the argument about the importance of post-Pleistocene climatic changes, and said that population pressure led people to invent agriculture?


(1) Lewis Binford


(2) Kent Flannery


(3) Gordon Childe


(4) Esther Boserup


(5) Robert Braidwood


QQ Which of the following is NOT associated with the earliest developments of the Neolithic cultural horizon?

(1) Increased health

(2) Increased population density

(3) Settled village life

(4) Food storage

(5) The development of social hierarchy


QQ Before the Neolithic revolution, population was primarily limited by:

(1) Measures like extended lactation to promote increased birth spacing

(2) Low-level technology, which created constant food scarcity

(3) Disease, which reduced life spans

(4) Predatory animals, against which people were helpless

(5) Estrus cycles 


QQ Mumi Bigmen of the Solomon Islands achieve their high status by

(1) redistributing wealth through feasts.

(2) suggesting enlightened courses of action.

(3) fighting in ritual battles.

(4) forming alliances with other chiefs on other islands.

(5) accumulating personal property.


QQ What might account for the emergence of chiefs in human society?

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) Increasing surplus led to better and better feasts by headman. This would have legitimated their status as a kind of chief.

(3) Storage technology allowed surplus to accumulate. This turned headmen into chiefs as people came to them during lean times.

(4) As technology improved, the production of surplus increased and more people would have competed for the privilege of being a headman.

(5) None of the answers are correct.

QQ An important feature of many early states was that they were:

(1) based on the control of irrigation technology by an elite.

(2) democratic.

(3) matriarchal.

(4) dependent on writing as the basis for taxation.

(5) matrilineal.


QQ People of the NW coast of North America developed a complex civilization without agriculture, based partly on what technology?

(1) the smoking of fish.

(2) traps for catching large forest animals.

(3) special flint knapping techniques that made possible the extraction of grain from wild seeds.

(4) canoes fitted with sails that made long-range trade possible.

(5) control of the natural fermentation in grain.


QQ Prehistoric civilizations developed along the Northwest coast of America that had social stratification but no agriculture. They relied on fishing for much of their protein supply. How were they able to preserve these fish?


(1) Smoking.


(2) Putting the fish in the ice that is characteristic of the area.


(3) Storing the fish in underground silos.


(4) Blocking off areas of the river, where fish could be harvested year-round as needed.


(5) None of these answers are correct.


QQ The following are type sites for New World and Old World examples of the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition:

(1) Teohuacan and Ali Kosh.

(2) Catal Huyuk and Natuf.

(3) Aztec and Mesopotamian.

(4) Jomom and Clovis.

(5) Bering Straits and Lasceaux Cave.


QQ Which of the following is false?

(1) the Natufians domesticated wheat during the Mesolithic

(2) some contemporary cultures have not participated in the Neolithic revolution

(3) the Neolithic revolution occurred in different places at different times

(4) social differentiation is a consequence of settled life

(5) the broad spectrum revolution started in southwestern Asia approximately 15,000 ya, but the agricultural revolution started approximately 10,000 ya


QQ A critical question about the Neolithic is:

(1) why would people give up a relatively healthy way of life (hunter/gatherer) for a less healthy way of life (early agricultural village).

(2) why didn't people recognize the value of agriculture earlier.

(3) why did animals remain undomesticated for so long after the domestication of plants.

(4) why it happened earlier in the Old World than in the New World.

(5) how people maintained their protein resources.


QQ Harlan showed that a family of four could harvest a kilogram of grain per hour using the kind of microlith sickles found at Natufian sites. We conclude from this that:

(1)  Intensive gathering preceded plant domestication by thousands of years

(2)  Agriculture was invented once in the world

(3)  Once people knew about agriculture, they gave up hunting and gathering immediately

(4)  Goats were domesticated before wheat was

(5)  the Natufians had developed a state by the end of the Mesolithic


QQ Which of the following is correct:

(1)  Life expectancy went down when agriculture made possible the development of settled communities and craft specialization

(2)  Infant mortality went down wherever agriculture was introduced during the Neolithic, whether in the Middle East or Middle America

(3)  In Alik Kosh and in Tehuacan, we see that agriculture led immediately to the domestication of animals and the abandonment of hunting

(4)  All of the world's primary states, from China to Mesopotamia to Mexico, were situated in river valleys where natural irrigation supported intensive plow agriculture

(5)  The people of the Northwest Coast of North America were developed complex civilization without agriculture because they were able to hunt whales whenever they needed food.


QQ The hydraulic theory and the circumscription theory are explanations for:

(1) the formation of early states

(2) the rise of population during the Neolithic

(3) the role of armies in early state formation

(4) why food production eventually outstrips carrying capacity

(5) why early New World states were so much more efficient in terms of food production than early Old World states

QQ What do proponents of the hydraulic theory for the origin of the state argue?

(1) States were the by-products of the organizational requirements of large irrigation systems.

(2) Irrigation began in China and spread along ancient trade routes.

(3) Irrigation systems favored democracy.

(4) Irrigation provided the advantage that allowed Homo sapiens sapiens to displace the Neandertals.

(5) Mesolithic states developed so that they could build irrigation systems.

QQ Robert Carneiro's circumscription theory:

(1) says that state formation starts with the inability of a group of people to move to a new location once they have depleted the resources of that place

(2) says that state formation is best explained by lack of agriculture

(3) is based on the need of societies to develop and manage irrigation systems

(4) predicts that states form as armies develop

(5) is based on the chinampas agricultural system in central Mexico


QQ What is the political organization of states based on?

(1) monopoly of force by a central authority

(2) a segmentary lineage organization

(3) influence

(4) kinship and marriage

(5) egalitarian social organization


QQ Which of the following statements about tribes like the Nuer of Sudan, with patrilineal segmentary lineage organizations  is correct?

(1) All of these answers are correct.

(2) Larger units called maximal lineages are subdivided into major, minor, and minimal lineages.

(3) Individuals most closely related by descent will exhibit the greatest social solidarity.

(4) One's allies can vary from one dispute to another depending on the genealogical distance of the parties in the dispute.

(5) Common patrilineal elders help settle disputes between closely related individuals.


QQ A segmentary lineage system, like that found among the Tiv of Nigeria and the Nuer of Sudan, has been linked to:

(1) military success of tribal level peoples.

(2) state level bureaucracies.

(3) the ability of the state to collect taxes.

(4) the ability of peoples without agriculture to develop complex civilizations.

(5) the inability of tribal level peoples to develop cheifdoms.


QQ From Kottak's discussion of the correlation between political forms and other sociocultural phenomena, what do many of the sociopolitical trends reflect?

(1) The increased regulatory demands associated with food reproduction.

(2) The sum total of all-inclusive fitness maximizing behaviors practiced by humans over time.

(3) An instinctive human need for order based on binary logic.

(4) The logical results of human biological tendencies, most especially sexual dimorphism.

(5) All answers are correct. 





QQ An affricate is a combination of a stop and a fricative. Which of the following words contains an affricate?

AA (1) all answers are correct

(2) saturate

(3) education

(4) object

(5) stature


QQ Research by linguistic anthropologists has shown that:

(1) The evolution of complexity in color terms parallels the evolution of social complexity.

(2) Since the lexicon evolves with the complexity of culture, primitive languages are not suited for discourse on modern technology.

(3) Chimpanzees can learn sign language because sign languages lack symbolic content and have simple grammars.

(4) Though meaning is arbitrarily assigned to morphemes and phonemes the rules for putting morphemes follow a universal pattern.

(5) All these statements are false.


QQ Among the reasons for the lack of human speech among chimpanzees is that:

(1) Their vocal tracts cannot make the sounds necessary for human speech.

(2) They are not sufficiently intelligent.

(3) Nobody has tried to teach them to do so.

(4) They do not have a culture to transmit.

(5) They do not communicate their feelings to others.


QQ During the babbling stage in language acquisition:

(1) children experiment with all sounds and keep those for which they are rewarded

(2) children learn the rules of the grammar

(3) children experiment with variations in the deep structure of all languages

(4) children learn the semantic component of the grammar

(5) infants of different cultures express innate tendencies to produce sounds that are specific to their culture


QQ The words blood, blod, bloed and blut in Germanic languages are examples of

(1) cognates within a language family

(2) diffusion across language families

(3) the influence of Asian languages on Indo-European languages

(4) dialectical variations within a single language

(5) dialectical variations across mutually unintelligible languages


QQ Historical linguists have shown that cultural features may or may not correspond with the distribution of language families because:

(1) ideas and inventions are diffused regardless of language barriers, for example, by war.

(2) of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

(3) women are mostly responsible for teaching language to children

(4) language and culture are not related in any way

(5) none of the answers are correct


QQ Lexicostatistics (also known as glottochronology) is:

(1)  a method for determining how long it has been since a pair of languages split from a common ancestor.

(2)  a method for determining the most common words in any language

(3)  a test of how much a particular dialect of a language conforms to the standard dialect

(4)  a method for determining whether a language can be written

(5)  a test of how old people have to be before they can become fully competent in their language


QQ Glottochronology (or lexicostatistics) is:


(1) The study of regularities in language change for written languages of the world and the application of the results in the reconstruction of non-written languages.


(2) The chronological listing and ordering of the world’s languages through phonological dissection.

(3) The use of semantic differences to order languages of the world by complexity.


(4) Timing of the variations in articulation of the glottis in the production of various phonemes.


(5) The mathematical study of languages to determine what percentage of many nouns and verbs each one has.


QQ During lecture, we saw that:

(1)  the rules governing the morpheme for making plural nouns in English are similar to the rules governing the morphemes for making the past tense.

(2)  Each language has a correct way of speaking, even though most people don't pay attention to that

(3)  even though languages like English and German look similar, they really are members of different language families

(4)  English is among the world's most difficult languages to learn to speak because the writing looks nothing like the spoken word and there are so many spelling exceptions

(5)  Ebonics, also known as African American Vernacular English, is not a dialect of English, but a full-fledged language


QQ Which is the correct order in which the following words entered English

(1)  village, garage, collage

(2)  garage, village, collage

(3)  collage, village, garage

(4)  village, collage, garage.

(5)  garage, collage, village


QQ According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:

(1) the grammatical categories of language are not universal, and the use of particular categories in any language leads its speakers to structure their view of the world in unique ways

(2) all languages have a common historical root

(3) the body movement, or kinesics of a language, shapes the way we think when we speak

(4) Native North American groups have unique grammatical conceptions of time and space because of their relation to nature

(5) languages go extinct when they no longer serve their speech communities economically. 


QQ The idea that the structure of a language influences the way that people think is known as the:


(1) Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.


(2) Universal Language Theory.


(3) Transformational grammar theory.


(4) Dialectical opposition hypothesis.


(5) Language Latitude Hypothesis.


QQ Research by linguistic anthropologists has shown that:

(1) people in simple societies can name ten times more plants than members of industrial societies can name

(2) since the lexicon evolves with the complexity of culture, primitive languages are not suited for discourse on modern technology

(3) chimpanzees can learn sign language because sign languages lack symbolic content and have simple grammars

(4) though meaning is arbitrarily assigned to morphemes and phonemes, the rules for putting morphemes together follow a universal pattern

(5) all these statements are false


QQ The words "altercation," "dine," and "cogitate" sound more elegant to us today than do the words "fight," "eat," and "think":

(1) As a consequence of certain events in 1066 AD.

(2) As a consequence of Americans' exposure to French during two world wars in the 20th century.

(3) Because English, along with other Romance languages, has roots in Latin, and Latin is a historically prestigious language.

(4) Because Indo-European languages have high- and low-prestige components.

(5) Because Anglo-Saxon was a more primitive language than French during the Middle Ages.


QQ We have different words for some animals and their meat (cow-beef, sheep-mutton, pork-pig) but not for chicken-chicken because:

(1) There were no sumptuary laws restricting chickens for English peasants after the Norman conquest  

(2) The Norman French did not have chickens when they invaded England  

(3) The Anglo-Saxons did not have chickens when they were invaded by the Norman French  

(4) People don't want to be reminded that they are eating a large mammal, but are not bothered by eating birds (guilt avoidance)  

(5) Chickens produce eggs as well as meat


QQ Which one of these statements is correct?

(1) All answers are correct. true.

(2) Though the evolution of the brain case and the evolution of language are associated, the origin of language is not known.

(3) There are no examples of languages that lack the capacity for acquiring and expressing all the knowledge existing in the world.

(4) Languages change by contact with other languages as well as from the local construction of new lexical items and new grammatical rules.

(5) The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis remains challenging, but the idea that certain languages are particularly good for expressing particular sentiments is discredited.


QQ Berlin and Kay's study of color term complexity give us clues about the origin and evolution of language because:

(1) the naming systems of colors become more complex as social organization becomes more complex

(2) words like grerb and wug show a common Indo-European language ancestor

(3) people in hunting and gathering societies do not see the same spectrum of colors that people in agricultural societies see

(4) all modern languages can be classified according to their morphological complexity

(5) higher apes are able to see more colors than are the lower apes


QQ Grerb, grue, and wug are all examples of:

(1) terms invented by linguists to designate concepts shared by societies with different levels of language complexity

(2) implements used by Homo Erectus that were discovered in various regions throughout China and Indonesia

(3) phonemes, which are meaningless in isolation, but when combined into prescribed sequences, convey a definite meaning

(4) words from old English that have undergone phonological and morphemic change

(5) Mousterian jewelry and ritual objects


QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) graphemes do not necessarily match phonemes in English.

(2) graphemes carry meaning and morphemes change meaning

(3) English uses an ideographic writing system

(4) men and women in most language communities use the same register for speech

(5) none of the answers are correct


QQ Writing is:

(1) An operationalization of language  

(2) More correct than spoken language  

(3) A guide to how one should talk  

(4) An independent invention from Greece and China

(5) All answers are correct.


QQ Ebonics, or African-American vernacular English is:

(1) One of many dialects of American English.

(2) A language invented by the Oakland School Board to get federal funding

(3) A grammatically simpler form of English than Standard English

(4) A form of African-American slang

(5) All answers are correct.


QQ The grammar of language has four levels. Which of these is NOT a level of grammar:

(1) Spelling  

(2) Phonology  

(3) Morphology  

(4) Syntax  

(5) Semantics  

QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) A phoneme is a meaningfully contrastive sound within a language  

(2) A phoneme is one of the 400 sounds used in human languages 

(3) A phoneme is a bundle of morphemes

(4) Morphemes are usually comprised of single phonemes

(5) Morphemes are bound to words


QQ Chomsky's theory of transformational grammar is based on the observation that

(1) there is a finite number of rules in any grammar but the number of grammatically correct sentences is infinite

(2) a considerable number of foreigners in the United States master all aspects of English except phonology

(3) naming systems for plants and animals around the world become more complex with social complexity

(4) acquisition of the semantic rules of grammar precedes the acquisition of morphological rules

(5) language structure determines the cosmology of people and cultures


QQ Which of the following is NOT among the sites where writing may been independently invented?

(1) Greece

(2) India

(3) China

(4) Mexico

(5) Iraq


QQ Japanese uses what is called a logographic writing system. This means that:

(1) two answers are correct

(2) each symbol represents a phoneme

(3) the system relies on a large number of bound morphemes

(4) people who use the system and speak different languages can begin to communicate without learning to speak one another's language

(5) whole words or concepts are represented by a graphic symbol


QQ In studying a second language as an adult, which of the following areas of language is the most difficult to master:

(1) phonology

(2) morphology

(3) syntax

(4) lexicon

(5) sentence structure


QQ Which one of the following definitions concerning the structure of language is correct?


(1) All the answers are correct.


(2) Phonology is the part of grammar that contains the rules for making and ordering sounds of a language.


(3) Semantics is the part of grammar that contains the rules for assigning meaning to words and phrases.


(4) Syntax refers to the rules for ordering words in phrases and sentences.


(5) Kinesics is the study of communication though body movements, stances, glances, gestures, and facial expressions.


QQ The evolution of human language is shown by:

(1) All answers are correct  

(2) The similarity in age at which children acquire certain language skills, irrespective of the language they speak

(3) Similarities in the development of pidgin and creole languages in various parts of the world  

(4) Fossil evidence for the development of the vocal apparatus in humans and in specific areas of the brain that are associated with language 

(5) The order in which color terms are included in lexicons


QQ What is a pidgin?

(1) a mixed language that develops to ease communication between members of different cultures in contact, usually in situations of trade or colonial domination

(2) a partial language that results from primitive tribes' attempts to learn the language of a modern industrialized state

(3) none of these answers are correct

(4) a language believed to be most like the original human language, spoken by a small population of Indian Ocean islanders

(5) a metalanguage developed by computer programmers that has yielded valuable insights into the workings of the human brain


QQ Historical linguistics:

(1) Is concerned with the reconstruction of languages and the study of how later languages evolve from earlier ones.

(2) Has shown that some languages facilitate the acquisition of cognition while some languages make it difficult to learn certain behaviors.

(3) Shows how the acquisition of language shapes the cognition of children regarding gender roles.

(4) Is useful in research on migrations and cultural borrowing when studies are restricted to small areas and short spans of time (like a few hundred years).

(5) Is useful for determining which dialect of a particular language is the most authentic and correct.


QQ What term refers to the existence of "high" and "low" dialects within a single language?

(1) diglossia

(2) displacement

(3) semantics

(4) kinesics

(5) lexcicon


QQ To what does diglossia refer?


(1) The switching between so-called low and high (that is more or less prestigious) variants of the same language.


(2) The switching between speech registers, as with gender or occupational registers.


(3) The hyoid bone that makes vocalization possible.


(4) The proto-language from which other languages emerged,


(5) The set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups.


QQ Which one of these statements is true?

(1) According to the behaviorist approach, children are born tabula rasa and acquire language through learning while the transformational approach holds that there is a universal grammar with which humans are born.

(2) A dialect is a surface manifestation of the underlying idea of a language, but some variants are more grammatically correct and more highly evolved than others.

(3) The immediate constituents approach is useful for describing how language evolve through time.

(4) Syntax is the first part of language to be learned and is therefore the most difficult part for learners of a second language to acquire.

(5) There are five phonemic vowels in English.


QQ Which one of these statements is true?

(1) All but one of these is true.

(2) There are some 6,000 languages in the world. Among them, 276 are spoken by more than a million people.

(3) Studies of the Indo-European language family show that English and Hindi are related.

(4) The borrowing of foreign words is the first sign that a language is either dying out or becoming creolized.

(5) Labov's study of the "fourth floor" phenomenon showed that accent may be used to grade people socially.


QQ If cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity to the survival of our species then what current trend should be cause for alarm?

(1) the elimination of linguistic diversity

(2) the rise of new nation states

(3) development of new economic systems

(4) growth of ideographic writing systems

(5) proliferation of computer-based translation


QQ People in China are able to understand their fellow citizens who speak different languages by means of:

(1) an ideographic writing system

(2) a common "lingua franca"

(3) sign language

(4) common cognates

(5) digital coding


QQ Sequoyah's syllabary is an example of:

(1) Stimulus diffusion.

(2) A failed attempt to apply the Western technology of writing to American Indian language.

(3) Direct borrowing from the Japanese Katakana syllabary.

(4) A rare, independent invention of writing.

(5) None of these answers is correct.


QQ which of the following statements about language and culture is FALSE?


(1) Writing is a superior way of representing language than is speech.


(2) Right-handedness is associated with the lateralization of the brain and lateralization is also key to language.


(3) In general, as the number of color terms found in a society increases, so too does the complexity of society increase.


(4) p, t, and k are voiceless stops in English.


(5) There are 46 phonemes in the English language (though this may vary slightly between dialects).


QQ When Washoe and Lucy tried to teach sign language to other chimpanzees, this was an example of:

(1) cultural transmission

(2) displacement

(3) call systems

(4) productivity

(5) estrus


QQ How many vowel sounds are there in Standard American English?

(1) eleven

(2) five

(3) twenty-six

(4) it varies between 20 and 30, depending on the geographic dialect

(5) it varies from 20 to 30, depending on the generational dialect

QQ Which of the following is true?

(1) Ninety-five percent of the world's languages are spoken by less than five percent of the world's people.

(2) Code switching is hard to do. This accounts for the fact that so few people in the world speak more than one language.

(3) Scholars in lexicostatistics (also called glottochronology) have shown that English and Navajo are distantly related languages.

(4) Writing was invented once in world, by Greeks around 750 BC, and spread rapidly to many other societies.

(5) The words "collage," "garage," and "village" entered English from French in that order.  

QQ Which of the following is true?

(1) English is a member of the Indo-European language family and is related to Hindi

(2) Latin was the most effective and complex language ever spoken, but has since degenerated into a number of simpler languages

(3) the English, Spanish, and French spoken in London, Madrid, and Paris, respectively, are the most highly developed dialects of those languages, against which all varieties of those languages are measured by linguists

(4) Haitian Creole is a dialect of French

(5) unaspirated /t/, though common in Spanish, does not occur in English

QQ Which of the following is not in the same language family as the rest?

AA (1) Hungarian

(2) Spanish

(3) Hindi

(4) Afrikaans

(5) Greek  

QQ In English, words naming domestic or game animals and the meat that comes from those animals are different because:

(1) of the Norman conquest of England in the 11th Century by speakers of French

(2) once a language is complex enough such differentiation always occurs

(3) animals and meat are unrelated concepts in most languages

(4) an era of plagues during the Middle Ages wiped out domestic animals making the consumption of meat available only to the wealthy

(5) interbreeding of domestic and wild stock resulted in animals changing though time


QQ Charting the origin of the Basque language is difficult because it:

(1) is an isolate

(2) is spoken by so few people

(3) is associated with political issues

(4) has no written form

(5) has become a dialect of Spanish


QQ The phonemic system of a given language consists of:

(1) A set of phones that are arbitrarily but habitually perceived by the speakers as contrastive.

(2) The number of phonetic sounds existing in a given language.

(3) The set of phones that regularly occur in all human languages.

(4) The structure of contrasting morphemes existing in a given language.

(5) A string of phonemes and morphemes in different combinations.


QQ An essential feature of Chomsky's notion of grammar is that:

(1) At the deepest level, all human languages share an inborn, species specific, structure. This is what makes it possible to learn to speak at an early age and what makes it possible to translate any human language into another.

(2) The set of conscious structural rules of a speech community make it possible for human beings to produce a finite number of messages that replicate previous messages.

(3) Every utterance has a surface structure and a deep structure. The surface structure corresponds to the syntactic while the deep structure corresponds to the phonetic level.

(4) Languages can be arranged in a hierarchical order according to the complexity of their deep structures.

(5) The extent to which discourse is specific or general reflects the culturally defined need to be specific or general in a particular culture.


QQ Linguists have coined the term “grue” to signify that:

AA (1) the physical spectrum of light world may be a given, but the way humans categorize that world is not.

(2) primitive peoples do not distinguish between green and blue.

(3) some American Indian languages have a more sophisticated lexicon about nature than, say, English or Spanish.

(4) languages of the world reflect a universal understanding of how chunks of the spectrum of light should be labeled.(5) as languages evolve, the color lexicon becomes more complex. 



QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) The universal incest taboo against mating within the nuclear family decreases the likelihood of genetic defects, but it is unclear whether people everywhere understand this.

(3) Children who grow up together, even if they are not biological kin, apparently develop an aversion to mating with one another

(4) Some researchers suggest that the incest taboo is overdetermined because it is so important for human survival.

(5) Violations of incest taboos are apparently more frequent than previously thought in our society, but we do not know the extent of those violations.


QQ Which of the following is an ascribed status in our culture?

(1) daughter

(2) professor

(3) police officer

(4) accountant

(5) liberal or conservative politician


QQ Thomas Arcury's study of household structure in rural Kentucky revealed that:

(1) All of these are true

(2) In 1900, most households were complex and were self-sufficient or relied on bartering

(3) In 1980, most people were employed outside of agriculture and most households had just two generations living together

(4) In 1960, there was a mix of simple and complex families and people raised food but often sold it and bought the food they ate

(5) Changes in kinship followed changes in the economy


QQ In our society:

(1) The ratio of achieved to ascribed statuses is very high  

(2) The ratio of ascribed to achieved statuses is very high 

(3) Ascribed status based on sex is no longer important  

(4) Ethnicity is no longer important as an ascribed status 

(5) People hold one status at a time


QQ As societies become more complex:


(1) The ratio of ascribed to achieved statuses goes down.


(2) Men’s status becomes increasingly tied to their material role as providers.


(3) The ratio of ascribed to achieved statuses remains steady.


(4) The ratio of ascribed to achieved statuses goes up.


(5) Women’s status becomes increasingly tied to their biological role as reproducers.


QQ What is an ascribed status?

(1) a status that people have little or no choice about occupying

(2) a status that you choose for yourself

(3) a status that you earn, as when a successful law student becomes a lawyer

(4) a status that results from personal achievement

 (5) a status that is based on standardized test scores


QQ As societies become more complex:

(1) The ratio of ascribed to achieved statuses goes down.

(2) Women's status becomes increasingly tied to their biological role as mothers.

(3) The ratio of ascribed to achieved statuses remains steady.

(4) The ratio of ascribed to achieved statuses goes up.

(5) Men's status become increasingly tied to their biological role as hunters.


QQ In Melford Spiro's study of kibbutzim in Israel, he found that children raised together seldom marry. Which theory about the incest taboo does this evidence support?

(1) The sexual aversion theory  

(2) The cooperation-exogamy theory  

(3) The family integration theory  

(4) The psychosocial development theory  

(5) The inbreeding theory


QQ Which of the following cultural traditions is more or less universal?

(1) The incest taboo

(2) Optimal foraging

(3) Dowry

(4) Bride price

(5) Patrilocal residence


QQ Among marriage systems of the world, which is the most rare?

(1) polyandry

(2) polygyny

(3) monogamy

(4) polygamy

(5) none of the answers is correct


QQ Which of the following statements is correct?


(1) Although marriage is nearly universal, there is a group of people in China who do not have any custom that we would recognize as marriage.


(2) Most of the world’s peoples are formally monogamous and practice matrilineal kinship


(3) Polyandry was, until quite recently, widely practiced in Europe


(4) Hunting and gathering bands are usually matrilineal and matrilocal.


(5) None of these answers are correct.


QQ Which of the following is a variety of plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband.

(1) polyandry

(2) polygyny

(3) endogamy

(4) exogamy

(5) progeny


QQ Which of the following is not a form of polygamy?

(1) A man who marries, then divorces, then marries again, then divorces again, then marries again, each time to a different woman

(2) A man who has three wives

(3) A woman who has three husbands, all of whom are brothers

(4) A man who has three wives, all of whom are sisters

(5) All answers are correct


QQ From the work of Melvyn Goldstein, fraternal polyandry in Tibet:

(1) Kept scarce land holdings intact, much as primogeniture did in 19th century England  

(2) Was based on the principle of population control  

(3) Was the result of female infanticide  

(4) Raised women's status higher than that of men in that society 

(5) Was based on the fact that the land was too barren to farm


QQ What is the material reason for Tibetan fraternal polyandry?


(1) To prevent the division of farmland into unusable plots.


(2) To deal with the shortage of women, caused by female infanticide.


(3) To ensure that women have at least one partner who is fertile.


(4) To produce more children for farm labor.


(5) None of these answers are correct.


QQ Which of the following is NOT true?

(1) marriage, by definition, is usually exogamous with respect to community, religion, or ethnicity

(2) marriage can create political alliances

(3) homogamy means to marry someone from a similar social or economic background

(4) polygyny is a type of plural marriage in which a man has more than one wife

(5) polyandry is a type of plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband


QQ From cross-cultural evidence, it appears that matrilocal residence is most likely when:

(1) warfare is against distant neighbors

(2) warfare is against close neighbors

(3) women are the primary food producers and warfare is nonexistent

(4) men are the primary food producers and warfare is against distant neighbors

(5) men and women are equal in terms of food production and warfare is nonexistent


QQ A study by Carol and Melvin Ember shows that postmarital residence tends to follow the gender that produces the most food:

(1) Once the location of warfare as an intervening variable is taken into account  

(2) When men engage in long-distance trade  

(3) When women's families are forced to amass large dowries 

(4) If women are expected to have at least four children  

(5) Irrespective of structural features in the society  


QQ The overwhelming majority of societies have:

(1) male-centered residence and descent patterns

(2) female-centered residence and descent patterns

(3) a balance between male and female descent patterns

(4) uxorilocal resident patterns

(5) avunculocal resident patterns


QQ In our society consanguineal relations are usually considered closer than:

(1) affinal relations

(2) matrilineal relations

(3) patrilineal relations

(4) ambilineal relations

(5) unilineal relations


QQ In matrilineal and matrilocal societies usually:

(1) Warfare groups reside far from one another, agriculture is practiced with the hoe and women have high status.

(2) Women dominated public power and had the control of the local economy.

(3) The political structure is very loose and men undertake most domestic chores while women perform most productive activities.

(4) Women's control of social power prevents the development of warfare and long-distance trade.

(5) The descent rules and residence rules produce stability under conditions of technological change.


QQ If a married couple resides with the husband's mother's brother, the postmarital residence pattern is called:

(1) Avunculocality  

(2) Uxorilocality  

(3) Bilocality  

(4) Neolocality  

(5) Patrilocality

QQ American culture is typically characterized by what kind of postmarital residence pattern, in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents.

(1) neolocality

(2) matrilocality

(3) patrilocality

(4) bilaterial locality

(5) lineal descent


QQ What is an age set?

(1) A group uniting all men or women born during a certain span of time.

(2) A pantribal sodality that represents a certain level of achievement in the society, much like the stages of an undergraduate's progress through college.

(3) All men and women related by virtue of patrilineal descent from a human apical ancestor.

(4) All men and women related by virtue of matrilineal descent from an a nonhuman apical ancestor.

(5) The same thing as a village council.


QQ One of the most salient characteristics of human domestic arrangements is that:

(1) No single pattern can be shown to be more natural than any other.

(2) The nuclear family always constitutes the minimal building block of domestic groups.

(3) All of them must have a coresident father husband.

(4) Matrifocal households occurs throughout the world and are always associated with poverty.

(5) All answers are true.


QQ Kinship systems:

(1) Regulate descent and marriage and how these ties relate to other areas of behavior.

(2) Are based on recognition of distinctions on generation, relative age, sex, social prestige, and wealth.

(3) Are predictable responses to differences in economic and political systems.

(4) Are a key to understanding social relations in simple and/or traditional societies but have lost meaning in modern industrial societies.

(5) Are a means to establish membership in every society, but are rarely associated with residence patterns.


QQ Which of the following is false? Kinship systems may be based partly on distinctions of:

(1) Economic stratification

(2) Generation of relatives

(3) Sex of relative

(4) Sex of intervening relative

(5) Consanguineal vs. affinal relatives


QQ What is the difference between consanguineal and affinal kin?


(1) Consanguineal kin are those kin biologically related to you, while those that are affinal are those related to you through marriage.


(2) Consanguineal are fictive kin, while affinal kin are biologically related to you.


(3)  Affinal kin are kin that are genetically related to you, while consanguineal kin are related to you through cultural associations.


(4) There is no difference between consanguineal and affinal kin.


(5) Consanguineal kin are those kin that are three generations away from ego, while affinal kin are those kin that are within three generations of ego.


QQ Which of the following is true?

(1) two answers are correct

(2) the terms co-sister in law and co-brother were widely used in English until about 1900, but fell out of use with industrialization

(3) none of the statements are true

(4) the ambiguous meaning of the terms brother-in-law and sister-in-law in English indicates one of the fuzzy boundaries in American kinship system

(5) the terms co-sister in law and co-brother in law in Spanish and Greek refer to people who marry a pair of brothers or a pair of sisters


QQ With a rule of matrilineal descent:

(1) children belong to the descent group (lineage, clan, etc) of their mother, but not to the descent group of their father.

(2) newly married couples move in with the wife's family

(3) postmarital residence pattern is determined by men

(4) only the female children of the group are included as members

(5) people trace their ancestry back to a mythical totem


QQ Rules of residence:

(1) keep members in the ancestral estate so that the group can benefit and manage the estate through generations

(2) reach their greatest social complexity with neolocality

(3) do not exist among hunting and gathering groups because they are nomadic

(4) keep people from setting up new households in neolocal societies

(5) are not found in societies that practice bilateral descent


QQ Unilineal patrilineal domestic groups:

(1) Trace their descent from a male ancestor, are usually related by patrilocal patterns of residence, and are characterized by male monopoly of warfare, hunting, and trading.

(2) Are characterized by avunculocality, hoe agriculture and long-distance trade.

(3) Are also called cognatic lineages or kindreds, and are characterized by the openness of their genealogical links.

(4) Trace their descent from a couple of ancestors and are associated with neolocality, ambilocality, and bilocality.

(5) Tend to be common among simple hunter-gatherers because their basic ecological arrangement demands that local groups remain open, flexible, and nonterritorial.


QQ Eskimo kinship terminology is associated with:

(1) Domestic organizations in which nuclear families tend to be mobile and isolated.

(2) Cognatic lineages and cognatic clans.

(3) Unilinear descent groups.

(4) The application of the same terms to people inside and outside the nuclear family.

(5) A distinction between cross- and parallel cousins.


QQ The American kinship system is most similar to what other system?

(1) Eskimo

(2) Dravidian

(3) Hawaiian

(4) Iroquois

(5) Aztec


QQ Kinship in the U.S. is usually considered either bilateral or patrilineal, especially because women often take the man's last name at marriage. According to the lecture, actual family life in the U.S. tends toward:

(1) matrifocality

(2) ambilocality

(3) extended kindred

(4) random variation in postmarital residence

(5) none of the answers


QQ The kinship system most observed in the U.S. is based on:

(1) bilateral descent

(2) matrilineal descent

(3) patrilocal residence

(4) neolocal descent

(5) unilineal descent


QQ All kinship systems have fuzzy edges. One fuzzy edge in the American kinship system is:

(1) indicated by the fact that your wife's or husband's brother-in-law or sister-in-law can be, but does not have to be, your brother-in-law or sister-in-law

(2) shown by the fact that we follow a unilineal descent rule

(3) the rigidity with which we use kin terms to refer only to real kin

(4) the lack of any single word in our language to distinguish between older and younger siblings

(5) indicated by our laws governing inheritance by adopted children


QQ Many American men are ambivalent about whether to call their wife's sister's husband their brother-in-law. This shows that:

(1)  all kinship systems have fuzzy edges

(2)  the concept of brother-in-law is disappearing in modern American kinship

(3)  the American kinship terminology system is related to the one used by the matriliean Iroquois

(4)  kinship is no longer an important part of American culture

(5)  people in America need creative ways to cut down their Christmas gift list


QQ The data from Thomas Acrury's study of rural Kentucky shows that:

(1)  family structure is sensitive to changes in the social and economic environment

(2)  family structure is insensitive to changes in the social and economic environment and has been stable in rural America over the last century

(3)  neolocality is the world's most popular form of post-marital residence

(4)  nearly all families in rural America were complex families at the end of the 20th century

(5)  the dowry is no longer a part of American marriage


QQ Which of the following is false?

(1) Statuses in any given society are independent of technology and other forces and remain fixed

(2) Statuses must be filled every generation

(3) Roles are the actions associated with statuses

(4) Societies differ with regard to the proportion of achieved and ascribed statuses

(5) All cultures have statuses that reflect recognition of individual differences based on age and sex, but the content of that recognition varies across cultures





QQ In small band and village societies:

(1) Public opinion rather than formal law is the source of social control and order.

(2) Social conflict is unknown because everybody is related through kinship and reciprocity ties.

(3) Warfare plays no role in the maintenance of ordered relations between separate societies.

(4) The individual accumulation of material possessions is the most common source of conflict.

(5) All answers are true.


QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) In preindustrial societies, people often go to war over fear of unpredictable, natural disasters.

(3) The presence of chronic, annually recurring, predictable food shortages does not predict war.

(4) Democracies hardly ever go to war with each other.

(5) Formal alliances to not necessarily lessen the chance of war between states.


QQ Which of the following is not characteristic of band-level societies?

(1) permanent villages

(2) egalitarian social structure

(3) nuclear families

(4) sexual division of labor

(5) mechanisms of social control


QQ The Semai of the Malay peninsula show that:

(1) It is possible for human beings to develop a nonviolent society .

(2) It is impossible for human beings to develop a nonviolent society.

(3) Violence may be learned rather than innate, but competition for resources eventually leads everywhere to learning violence as a way of life.

(4) The state is not a Western invention.

(5) Women can govern large, modern states.


QQ Warfare was endemic in the New Guinea Highlands. After contact with Europeans, warfare was suppressed and trade goods were introduced. As a result:


(1) the rate of intertribal marriage decreased as old trade alliances became obsolete.


(2) the rate of intertribal marriage increased as people. found that they no longer had anything to fear from other tribes


(3) old trade alliances were strengthened because people rejected trade goods.


(4) nothing much changed, because the local culture was stronger than the structural changes brought by Europeans.


(5) some tribes became very rich and bought all the land of their former enemies.


QQ Chiefdoms consist of:

(1) Several more or less permanently allied communities where the chief plays the role of great provider, expanding and intensifying production and organizing warfare.

(2) A nonkin political organization held together by the voluntary association of several bands.

(3) A set of autonomous villages or bands, each one of them led by a headman.

(4) A politically centralized society whose governing elites have the power to compel subordinates to pay taxes, render services and obey the law.

(5) A league of matrilineal bands allied for warfare purposes.


QQ Modern political and economic events, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the development of the European Union

(1) can be seen as a continuation of a cultural evolutionary pattern in which the number of autonomous political units has been decreasing for 3000 years

(2) is evidence that cultural evolution has ended in modern times

(3) is evidence of women's decreased role in cultural evolution in modern times

(4) is the driving force of the second demographic transition

(5) can be seen as a cultural evolutionary move toward a community-based social organization


QQ Band level hunting and gathering societies rely on all of the following to maintain personal security without law enforcement specialists EXCEPT:

(1) The use of military force

(2) The small size of bands and villages

(3) The central importance of domestic groups and kinship in social organization

(4) The absence of marked inequalities in access to technology and resources

(5) Generalized reciprocity


QQ Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the band level of sociocultural integration.

(1) the economic system is based on redistribution.

(2) the economic system is based on generalized reciprocity.

(3) the political system is based mostly on egalitarian principles.

(4) groups are rarely larger than 100 in size, with most in the 20-50 range.

(5) the mode of production is hunting and gathering.


QQ Contemporary peasant populations:

(1) Constitute 40% of the world's population, use preindustrial technologies of food production, and pay rent or taxes.

(2) Are agricultural workers always subject to a centralized hereditary ruling class.

(3) Are farmers who are in the market economy and use modern technologies.

(4) Are agricultural workers who must work for wages because they have do not have access to lands.

(5) All answers are true.


QQ Which of the following is true about chiefdoms?

(1) they have been around for more than 10,000 years

(2) group size is usually less than 100 people

(3) they disappear when a nation-state emerges

(4) people have allegiance to a real chief

(5) they can not have a monetary system


QQ The Kula exchange of the Trobrianders

(1) Allowed the circulation of handcrafts and products among the different islands engaged in this ritual exchange.

(2) Was restricted to the exchange of jewels among neighbors.

(3) Marked the political succession of a chief and proved his ability to be generous.

(4) Allowed the population to gather the products necessary to organize a Big Moka.

(5) All answers are true. 


QQ The Kula Ring is:

(1) A ritual system of trade that facilitates long-distance networks of practical trade goods in the Trobriand Islands.

(2) A type of kinship system that facilitates marriage in the Trobriand Islands.

(3) A ritual object that signifies the power of the chief in Yap and was described by Bronislaw Malinowski.

(4) A group of islands in Melanesia where people use cowry shells for money.

(5) A group of chiefs in Melanesia whose rituals are secret.


QQ An economic system consists of:

(1) All of these are true

(2) A way to allocate natural resources

(3) The conversion of natural resources to goods and services

(4) The distribution of goods and services

(5) Reciprocity


QQ Advanced subsistence systems are correlated with:

(1) Dance styles in which many body parts--fingers, wrists, arms, torso, legs, feet, toes--have distinctive movements to make or parts to play.

(2) The use of musical scales in which the notes are widely separated.

(3) Songs using repetition in their lyrics--that is, a few words sung over and over again.

(4) The use of only two kinds musical of instruments and small numbers of each of them.

(5) Dance styles using simple up-down or side-side steps like hopping or shuffling.


QQ Which of the following is NOT an example of reciprocity found in the U.S.?

(1) Kula Ring

(2) Christmas cards

(3) Wedding presents

(4) Stump liquor

(5) Trading babysitting time 


QQ The Potlatch is NOT characterized by:

(1) Bragging about how much land one owns

(2) A desire to increase one's own power or rank

(3) The giving away or destruction of goods

(4) A need to call on one's network for goods

(5) A public event 


QQ A good example of optimal foraging theory is:

(1) Gathering roots and fruits while hunting large animals 

(2) Focusing energy on large-calorie payoffs like peccary and deer

(3) Slash-and-burn agriculture

(4) Letting women do most of the foraging which results in gender equality

(5) Killing only small animals and not killing large ones


QQ The Aché of Paraguay live in a forested area that has dozens of species of edible animals, yet they hunt just 16 species. It turns out that it is not simply how abundant a food resource is that determines whether it is used, but how much it contributes to the efficiency of food production. This finding is part of:

(1) optimal foraging theory.

(2) postmodernism.

(3) evolutionism.

(4) diffusionism.

(5) the demographic transition.


QQ The technoenvironmental efficiency rating, developed by Marvin Harris, is highest among:

(1) Rice producers in Yunan province

(2) The Tsembaga Maring, who raise pigs and practice slash-and-burn agriculture

(3) The Genieri of Gambia, who use Neolithic technology

(4) The !Kung San foragers studied by Richard Lee

(5) Foragers in the U.S. who rummage through garbage


QQ Marvin Harris's comparative study of the Bushmen, the Tsembaga, the Chinese peasants, and the industrial farmers of the US showed that:

(1) It takes hunter-gatherers less time to work for the food they consume than it takes for people in industrial economies 

(2) Horticulturalists, like the Maya, eventually are forced by their technology to "eat the forest," which leads to the collapse of their civilization  

(3) Traditional methods of irrigated rice farming produced just barely enough to support peasants in China  

(4) The average worker in the US today takes less time to earn the money required for food consumption than did the average worker in 1970 

(5) If hunter-gatherers had understood the concept of optimal foraging, they would not have been driven to extinction 


QQ In class, we saw that the people of Luts'un in Yunan Province, China produced about 3.8 billion calories per year, using preindustrial irrigation technology for intensive rice cultivation. The 700 residents of Luts'un needed about 600 million calories for subsistence. Where did all the other calories go?

(1) Much of the surplus went to support the apparatus of the state.

(2) They were converted into cash (from exports) that farmers were able to spend or save as they pleased.

(3) They were consumed in lavish feasts that validated publicly the power of local elites.

(4) They were traded for consumer goods, like automobiles and entertainment.

(5) Much of the surplus was simply stored for use during famines.


QQ A principle developed in economic anthropology states that the greater the number of producers relative to the number of consumers in a family results in less work per producer. This principle is known as:



(1) Chayanov’s Rule


(2) Claighton’s Rule


(3) Phillip’s Principle


(4) Clandestine’s Concept


(5) Bodwin’s Rule


QQ True money must be:

(1) portable and durable

(2) based on gold or some other precious metal

(3) based on some form of paper or coin currency

(4) stable in value at all times

(5) independent of the political system 


QQ Which of the following statements about foraging societies is correct?

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) All modern foraging societies live in nation-states.

(3) All modern foraging societies depend to some extent on government assistance.

(4) All modern foraging societies have contact with other, non-foraging societies.

(5) Many foragers have easily incorporated modern technology, such as rifles and snowmobiles, into their subsistence activities.  


QQ Why do slash-and-burn cultivators stop using a plot of land every 2-3 years?

(1) They do not use fertilizer, thus their crops exhaust the soil quickly.

(2) Slash-and-burn cultivation is associated with big-game hunting, which requires regular movement so as not to deplete the animal population.

(3) Slash-and-burn cultivation is unique to societies organized around segmentary lineages, and crop rotation follows the cycle of inter-lineage exchange.

(4) Slash-and-burn cultivators use irrigation systems that have to be repaired every 2-3 years.

(5) All of these are true 


QQ According to data gathered by Richard Lee, the !Kung diet

(1) was as nutritious as the average middle-class American's

(2) was only minimally nutritious

(3) was calorie deficient

(4) overly stressed their environment

(5) was protein-deficient 


QQ Which of the following statements about generalized reciprocity is true?

(1) It is the dominant form of exchange in egalitarian societies

(2) It is characterized by the immediate return of the object exchanged

(3) It usually develops after redistribution but before a market system appears

(4) It disappears with the origin of the state

(5) It is exemplified by silent trade


QQ The silent trade between groups of Pygmy foragers of the African equatorial forest and their neighboring horticultural villages is an example of::

(1) ensuring against negative reciprocity

(2) promoting generalized reciprocity

(3) balanced reciprocity

(4) redistribution

(5) none of the these answers is correct


QQ One of the key factors in the development of settled populations and social hierarchies is:

(1) The development of a storage technology allowing the population to keep their surplus.

(2) The development of sophisticated hunting and gathering techniques.

(3) The development of hereditary trade circuits.

(4) The development of hereditary military and religious leaders.

(5) The intensification of warfare and navigation


QQ The Diwara shells used in New Britain and Melanesia were a form of true money. They were:

(1) Nonperishable, had stable value, were accumulated as capital, and were lent at interest.

(2) Were perishable and used for the reciprocal exchange of gifts.

(3) Were redistributed equally by a central power to members of the society .

(4) Were perishable and exchanged among Kula ritual partners.

(5) Circulated along all the Melanesian Islands and served as the means for reciprocal ritual exchanges.


QQ Diwara shells, Sudanese cowries and Yap money wheels have which of the following properties:

(1) all answers are correct

(2) durability

(3) homogeneity

(4) divisibility

(5) portability


QQ Iroquois wampum

(1) Coexisted with European money into the 18th century.

(2) Disappeared as soon as the Dutch imposed the florin in the early 17th century.

(3) Coexisted with British money until the end of the 19th century.

(4) Consisted of shell necklaces and bracelets that traveled as ritual objects in advance of trading parties.

(5) All the answers are correct.


QQ Iroquois wampum and Yap money wheels show that:

(1) Indigenous peoples developed the abstract concept of money as a symbolic medium of exchange independently

(2) Primitive peoples did not understand that real money must be divisible and portable.

(3) The Kula ring diffused to most of the world prior to the Industrial revolution

(4) Optimal foraging is the basis of primitive economies

(5) Generalized reciprocity is characteristic of preindustrial economies


QQ From examples given in class, which of the following is correct?

(1) The value of money is based on the beliefs of its users in that value.

(2) The people of Yap did not have true money because it was not based on anything of value.

(3) Captain O'Keefe was able to buy the entire Yap empire by counterfeiting money wheels.

(4) The value of money in the U.S. is tied to the price of gold.

(5) All answers are correct.


QQ Why did the !Kung San ridicule Richard Lee's great ox?

(1) To teach him not to boast

(2) The ox was too scrawny for the Christmas feast

(3) It was part of a ritual to make him an honorary member of the band

(4) They wanted to shame him into buying two oxen

(5) Since they are foragers, they had no experience with domestic cattle


QQ Richard Lee was chastised by the !Kung for bragging about the ox he presented at the Christmas feast. This is the sort of social control behavior one expects to find in an economic system based on:

(1) Generalized reciprocity  

(2) All purpose money  

(3) Market exchange  

(4) Barter  

(5) Kula rings


QQ Which one of these statements is true?

(1) Tribes are decentralized, autonomous, sedentary, horticulture-based or herding based communities with kinship based social organization and, usually, a common language.

(2) The traditional !Kung San of the Kalahari are an example of a tribal level society.

(3) A tribe is a centralized political system organized according to an age grading system and a true money medium of exchange.

(4) Chiefdoms are characterized by the lack of social ranks and the development of trade.

(5) All answers are correct.


QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) In the U.S., reciprocity is the cultural basis of a major component of the economy.

(2) In the U.S., reciprocity has ceased to be an important force in the economy.

(3) The sale of Xmas trees is an example of reciprocity operating in the economy.

(4) In hunter-gatherer groups, disputes over ownership of private property are the main causes of violence.

(5) All answers are false.


QQ Which of the following does NOT occur as you move along the plant-cultivating continuum from horticulture to intensive agriculture?

(1) societies become more egalitarian

(2) population density increases

(3) village size increases

(4) villages are located closer together

(5) land is used more intensively


QQ In cultural evolutionary terms, economies are classified into three major types of distribution:

(1) reciprocity, redistribution, market exchange

(2) pastoralism, horticulture, industrial production

(3) hunting and gathering, nomadism, settled village life

(4) barter, money, markets

(5) Kula ring, Potlatch, and Big Man


QQ Hunting-and-gathering bands are all patrilocal because:

(1) Hunting requires a kind of knowledge that keeps men close to their natal home.

(2) Men produce most of the nonprotein food.

(3) Women produce most of the protein food.

(4) There is an ideology of male dominance.

(5) Hunting is tied to warfare, which keeps men close to their natal home.


QQ If we compare the data on food production among the Kalahari !Kung San with similar data from more complex societies, we find that:

(1) Two of these answers are correct.

(2) Hunters and gatherers have a high food-production efficiency rating.

(3) There is a leap of efficiency at the intensive-agriculture stage of production

(4) The U.S. has a high efficiency rating, but it takes 8 external calories to produce each calorie of food.

(5) Hunters and gatherers have very little leisure because they are constantly searching for food.


QQ Some indigenous peoples of the NW coast of North America developed complex societies without agriculture. One key to this was:

(1) they developed a technology for smoking and preserving salmon

(2) women did intensive, year-round collecting of berries and nuts and other nutrient-rich resources

(3) the division of labor between nobles and commoners made possible the massing and storage of food for the winter

(4) they had stable, year-round access to whales and other large sea mammals which provided a constant supply of protein

(5) The Potlatch distributed resources more-or-less evenly across social and economic lines


QQ Cultures of the Northwest Coast of North America make clear that:

(1) Hunting and gathering under conditions of abundance can support relatively complex societies  

(2) It is possible for people to survive entirely on whale meat  

(3) Market economies based on true money evolve naturally from systems based on generalized reciprocity 

(4) No amount of technology input is enough to turn hunter/gatherers into market economy participants  

(5) The potlatch is a destructive practice and was the downfall of people who practiced it


QQ Complex political organization is nearly always based on agriculture. The Indians of the northwest coast of North America had complex political organization without agriculture. This was possible because:

(1) They were able to store protein resources in the form of smoked fish.

(2) They had great skill in local warfare and were able to capture what they needed from their neighbors.

(3) They developed the potlatch system and were able to redistribute food across a wide area.

(4) They were able to hunt and gather all year long.

 (5) Salmon was available at all times of the year.


QQ From an anthropological perspective:

(1) Although usually women do not usually hold formal political power, this fact has no genetic basis.

(2) The existence of a dual political system among the Igbo of Nigeria is evidence that political power is related to innate differences between the sexes.

(3) Political systems, like economic and religious systems, are arbitrary examples of superstructure.

(4) The fact that Iroquois women had power but not office is evidence that women's nurturing qualities make them unsuitable for warfare.

(5) There is ethnographic and archeological evidence of the existence of matriarchal political systems.


QQ From the perspective offered in this course:

(1) All answers are correct..

(2) It is not human nature that causes different political systems to develop but circumstances related to the increasing complexity of social and economic conditions.

(3) There has been a tendency over the last several thousand years to integrate all cultural and ethnic groups into fewer and bigger political units.

(4) 3,000 ya there were perhaps 100,000 autonomous political units, while today there are about 200.

(5) Until 150 years ago about half of all political units were organized at a level no higher than that of the community.


QQ According to Marvin Harris, warfare among the Yanomamo appears to be mainly:

(1) A struggle for access to game and to hunting territories.

(2) A way to equilibrate the shortage of women produced by female infanticide.

(3) A way to maintain their culture isolated and free from Western influence.

(4) A competition among different native groups for the control of the trade of Western products.

(5) A consequence a system of values that emphasizes warriorship and bravery.


QQ The long-term trend in political organization is:

(1) toward fewer and fewer political units

(2) toward the breakup of nation states into multiple states

(3) none of these answers is correct

(4) the elimination of war through trade

(5) an expanded number of chiefdoms in West Africa


QQ Studies of the small-world problem demonstrate that:

(1) all answers are correct

(2) complex societies like ours are highly structured

(3) who we know in life is partly determined by where we live.

(4) who we know is partly determined by social race

(5) who we know is partly determined by our occupation


QQ The sequence of social integration in cultural evolutionary terms is:

(1) band, tribe, chiefdom, state

(2) empire, chiefdom, state, tribe

(3) community, state, empire, chiefdom

(4) village, city, empire, state

(5) band, village, empire, chiefdom


QQ Most of human history has been characterized by which level of political organization?

(1) foraging

(2) tribe

(3) chiefdom

(4) state

(5) band


QQ What is a "Big Man"?

(1) He is a man of influence and prestige.

(2) He is a hereditary ruler.

(3) He is a person who holds a permanent political office.         

(4) He avoids excessive displays of generosity.

(5) He has tremendous power because he is regarded as divine.


QQ The "Big Man" in Papua New Guinea and the village headman among the Yanomami:

(1) lack the right to issue orders and derive their authority from the example they set and from their powers of persuasion.

(2) derive their authority from one-person-one-vote elections.

(3) rely on organized police forces to maintain their power

(4) have the power to put anyone in jail who rejects their authority

(5) show that these tribal societies developed state-level political organization before contact with Europeans.


QQ Foraging economies are usually associated with which type of sociopolitical organization?

(1) band

(2) tribal

(3) state

(4) chiefdom

(5) empire


QQ Kottak discusses the relation of political forms and other sociocultural phenomena and concludes that the trend reflects:

(1) increased regulatory demands associated with food reproduction.    

(2) the sum total of inclusive fitness maximizing behaviors practiced by humans over time.

(3) an instinctive human need for order based on binary logic.

(4) the logical result of human biological tendencies, most especially sexual dimorphism.

(5) all answers are correct.


QQ Which of the following factors is responsible for the recent changes in Yanomami tribal society?

(1) The encroachment by gold miners and cattle ranchers.

(2) Modern-minded Big Men have amassed so much wealth that people have begun to regard them as chiefs.

(3) They are being overrun by the more expansion-minded Nilotic peoples.

(4) Village raiding among tribal groups.

(5) Sexual dimorphism.


QQ Political domination by women, or matriarchy, occurs:

(1) In no society

(2) Among !Kung San

(3) Among Australian Aborigines

(4) In all societies that are matrilineal

(5) In many societies, but male-biased ethnographers have neglected to report it


QQ The most famous current example of a caste system is found in India. Remnants of recent caste systems are still found in:

(1) All answers are correct

(2) The United States

(3) Japan

(4) South Africa

(5) None of these answers is correct


QQ Among the main characteristics of hunter-gatherer populations are:

(1) Egalitarianism, sexual division of labor, simple social organization, and nomadic residence.

(2) A strong relationship with the environment, sexual symmetry and matrilineal descent.

(3) Matrilineal inheritance, strong development of warriorship and equalitarianism.

(4) A deep sense of territory, elaborated social stratification and development of trade.

(5) Subsistence work done mostly by men, highly elaborated female initiation rituals, and nomadic residence.


QQ Among the main characteristics of pastoralist societies are:

(1) Transhumancy, male dominance, and a sense of independence.

(2) Highly elaborated religious rituals, equalitarianism, and sedentarism.

(3) The absence of private property warriorship and large territory.

(4) Patrilineal descendance and inheritance patterns, gender equality, and pacifism.

(5) All answers are true.


QQ Although the slash-and-burn mode of production is more efficient than hunting and gathering in obtaining calories, it is constrained by:

(1) Limits on forest regeneration and the vulnerability of forests to depletion of animal species.

(2) Its inability to produce sufficient food to support settled villages.

(3) The inability of horticulturalists to maintain their population size.

(4) The inability of horticulturalists to keep domesticated animals.

(5) None of these is correct.


QQ Slash and burn agriculture is more efficient as a means of producing food calories than all of the following except:

(1) irrigation agriculture

(2) pastoralism

(3) foraging

(4) hunter/gathering

(5) herding


QQ Pastoralists:


(1) are people whose food production is based on the care of domesticated animals.


(2) are nomadic hunters who utilize advanced tracking methods to capture and consume prey.


(3) are exemplified by the Inuit people of the artic.


(4) acquire most of their food by silent trade


(5) produce food with horticultural techniques rather than intensive agricultural methods.


QQ The upper limit of production in a society and hence the limit of population size and density is known as the society's:

(1) carrying capacity

(2) technological apex

(3) point of no return

(4) point of diminishing return

(5) intensification limit


QQ Generalized reciprocity is the main form of exchange under which of the following conditions?

(1) Hunting-and-gathering technology, unpredictability of resources, and lack of scarcity.

(2) Hunting-and-gathering technology, matrilocal residence, and bilateral descent.

(3) Slash-and-burn technology and the production of stable surpluses.

(4) Industrial technology, neolocality, and bilateral descent.

(5) Intensive agricultural technology and scarcity of resources.


QQ In order to function properly as a medium for exchange in a price market, money must be all of the following except:

(1) attractive

(2) portable

(3) divisible

(4) convertible

(5) anonymous


QQ According to Max Weber, what are the three dimensions of stratification?


(1) wealth, power, and prestige


(2) power, health, and unity


(3) truth, honor, and power


(4) poverty, location, and the state


(5) the church, the state, and the individual





QQ Cognitive and psychological anthropology covers which of the following topics?


(1) All answers are correct.


(2) emotional development


(3) cognitive development


(4) cultural factors in the variation of mental illness


(5) the cross-cultural study of mental illness


QQ Psychological anthropologists:

(1) test the extent to which we can generalize about human nature from Western societies

(2) try to disprove the findings of the hegemonic culture

(3) want to show the universal applicability of Western psychological theories in different cultures

(4) have found that mental illness does not exist in simpler societies

(5) work in non-Western societies


QQ Child-rearing practices vary a lot from culture to culture. Which of the following is FALSE?

(1) The majority of babies worldwide are weaned by the time they are 12 months of age

(2) Western babies are held less often and by fewer people than are babies in most of the rest of the world

(3) Among the Efe, a baby who cries gets a response within 10 seconds most of the time

(4) In poor countries, women breastfeed more because they can't afford formula and respond to babies' cries because they have a real fear that their child could die

(5) In the U.S., many people believe that always responding to a crying baby, or holding a baby too often, will make the baby grow up to be not adequately independent


QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) In societies where infant morality is high, people are more likely to respond quickly to a baby's crying and babies likely to be held more of the time than in societies where infant mortality is low.

(2) In most of the world's societies, babies are breast fed for about six months.

(3) Hunters and seafaring people across the world tend not to show field independence. Urban dwellers in the U.S., however, show strong field independence.

(4) Since people in different cultures show different content in hallucinations, this shows that schizophrenia is a cultural disease, without any biological basis.

(5) Edgerton found that Swahili speakers have no word for mental illness.


QQ Several tests are used to measure where an individual falls along Piaget's stages of development. Which of the following is true?

(1) As yet, there are no culture free test for measuring Piagetian stages of cognitive development

(2) People in many societies are incapable of reaching the formal operational level of development

(3) Tests using universal stimuli give unbiased results

(4) Word pairs and syllogisms are unbiased ways to test if a person, in any culture, has reached the formal operational stage

(5) Experience with formal schooling does nothing to improve one's ability to perform well on cognitive development tests because the tests are culture free


QQ What did Marc Irwin and Douglas Price-Williams prove by illustrating the instrument effect?


(1) Preindustrial people are not stuck at the preoperational stage.


(2) Cognitive patterns vary depending on mode of production.


(3) Non-industrial peoples have less intellect than those of industrialized countries.


(4) Cognitive processing ability varies by community and family size.


(5) None of these answers are correct.


QQ Edgerton studied symptoms of severe mental illness in four different East African groups. He found:

(1) All answers are correct

(2) All the symptoms listed by people in these groups as indicators of mental illness would be seen as indicators of mental illness in Western societies

(3) There was a lot of overlap in the top five traits listed by each group

(4) Schizophrenia is expressed in different ways, depending on the cultural context

(5) These groups did not list hallucination as a common symptom of mental illness


QQ In class, we saw that the percentage of mental illness cases diagnosed as schizophrenia varies across societies. We conclude from this, and from other evidence, that:

(1) while schizophrenia has a biological basis, its presentation is associated with cultural differences.

(2) schizophrenia is a cultural construct, with no genetic basis.

(3) some cultures do not have mental illnesses.

(4) societies that emphasize collectivist values experience high levels of schizophrenia, while societies that emphasize individualist values do not.

(5) all societies experience the same incidence of mental illness.


QQ Anthropology added to Freud's idea that personality is largely determined by the individual's experiences during infancy and childhood, the notion that:

(1) Early experiences vary widely in conformity with the specific forms of family life and gender roles characteristic of particular sociocultural systems.

(2) Adult personality is largely shaped by an individual's experiences in resolving certain recurrent conflicts during infancy.

(3) Though penis envy is universal, it is more intense in patriarchal societies.

(4) Freud's findings about 19th-century Vienna society could be generalized for the rest of the world.

(5) The Oedipus complex varies in relation to religious beliefs.


QQ In his study of the Trobrianders, Malinowski concluded that:

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) Hostility toward the father is a consequence of disciplinary rather than of sexual jealousy.

(3) Among the Trobrianders the maternal uncle played the role of authority figure that the father plays in Western society.

(4) The Trobrianders were matrilineal.

(5) The Oedipus complex is not universal.


QQ Cora Dubois's studies among the Alor showed that:

(1) There is a relationship between parental rejection and a hostile worldview.

(2) The Alor population could best be described as psychotic.

(3) Alorese mothers breast-feed until their infants were four years old.

(4) Religion was the most important institution in Alor society.

(5) Alorese rituals of initiation to adulthood stressed individual achievement.


QQ From the results of cross-cultural studies of Piaget's theory of cognitive development:

(1) All answers are false.

(2) Children's cognitive development through the sensori-motor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational stages is uniform across cultures.

(3) Cognitive development is genetically driven and affected little by schooling.

(4) Some primitive peoples of the world have limited capacity for cognitive development.

(5) The preoperational stage may be universal.


QQ Why don't prestate peoples seem to understand the principle of conservation of volume in tests using beakers and water?

(1) The instruments used in the test appear to cause the results

(2) Prestate people tend to be field independent

(3) Prestate people do not store things, and so never learn to conceptualize conservation

(4) The conservation of volume concept is too abstract for them

(5) None of these answers is correct


QQ Rosenhan's study using pseudopatients showed:

(1) The power of labeling in the treatment of the mentally ill

(2) That schizophrenia does not have a biochemical basis but is expressed culturally

(3) African societies understand the concept of mental illness

(4) That Freud's stages of psychosexual development are universal

(5) Once people are admitted to a mental institution, they have no hope of leaving


QQ In Rosenhan's study, 8 pseudo-patients were diagnosed as schizophrenic. The primary conclusion of this study concerned:

(1) The tremendous power of labeling

(2) The prevalence of oral-acquisitive behavior among schizophrenics

(3) The highly precise diagnostic abilities of mental health workers

(4) Patient note-taking behavior in mental hospitals

(5) The treatment of mental patients as 'nonpeople' 


QQ From Bolton's research on the Quolla Indians of the high Andes, the most aggressive individuals suffer from

(1) Mild hypoglycemia

(2) Severe hypoglycemia

(3) High blood sugar levels

(4) Mild diabetes

(5) Protein deficiency


QQ Piaget's concrete-operational stage of cognitive development may appear not to be universal, but:

(1) The data from tests of this problem are done with instruments that assume a common culture based on schooling

(2) The existence of windigo, pibloktoq, and amok show that primitive peoples do not label mental illness

(3) Field independence is universal

(4) Children in all cultures develop the principle of conservation by age 5

 (5) All answers are false


QQ Which of the following is not a stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development

(1) Plastic operational

(2) sensorimotor

(3) Preoperational

(4) Concrete operational

(5) Formal operational


QQ From the material in this course, which of the following is false?

(1) The Oedipus complex is universal

(2) While personality is an individual trait, anthropologists sometimes speak of a basic, modal, or typical personality of a group

(3) Personality is molded by childhood experiences

(4) Dreams and hallucinations are culturally specific

(5) Schizophrenia has a biological base, but the way people act out the illness is strongly influenced by culture 


QQ From Marano’s work, the best etic explanation for the Windigo phenomenon is:

(1) Triage homicide, letting some die in order that others might live

(2) A culturally specific Windigo psychosis

(3) Possession by a Windigo spirit

(4) The long arctic winters drives people mad

(5) Reduction of stress from infanticide by claiming that Windigos ate one's baby  


QQ Which of the following is correct?

(1) Broad symptoms of the same mental illnesses can be found cross-culturally but specific symptoms found in different cultures vary considerably

(2) There is no biological basis for any mental illness

(3) Arctic hysteria is a culture-specific psychosis caused by isolated living conditions

(4) Windigo psychosis produces an overwhelming desire to kill and eat the mates of sick people

(5) Dreams and hallucinations present the same underlying pattern in all cultures


QQ The idea of the psychic unity of humankind is that:

(1) All people are capable of acquiring all cultures.

(2) Cultural differences are caused at least partly by genetically inherited knowledge.

(3) The main cause of cultural evolution is the struggle for survival.

(4) All human beings are born with the same personality traits, but culture can change those traits.

(5) Psychology is the most scientific way to study differences in how human beings perceive reality.





QQ Animism is:

(1) The universal belief that inside the ordinary, visible tangible body there is a normally invisible, intangible being.

(2) An attempt to express and rationalize extraordinary psychological experiences induced by hallucinatory drugs.

(3) The belief that certain things and/or natural objects have extraordinary powers.

(4) The attempt to control the entities and forces governing events through ritual procedures.

(5) A religious complex based on initiation rites of passage.


QQ Research by Rice and Paterson on Late Paleolithic cave paintings showed that:

(1) There was a correlation among the danger of hunting an animal, its weight, and the frequency of its portrayal.

(2) Most paintings represented scenes of ritual.

(3) Representational art was still in a primitive stage of development.

(4) Small species were over portrayed.

(5) All the answers are false.


QQ All of the following support the idea that Upper-Paleolithic cave paintings were part of rituals except:

(1) Possible paintings of dancers wearing masks

(2) Their location in the caves

(3) The subject matter

(4) The paintings on top of paintings

(5) The economy of line and color


QQ Why is the current best theory for the disappearance, toward the end of the Paleolithic, of cave art depicting large animals?

(1) with the retreat of the Wurm glacier, the megafauna were becoming extinct and smaller animals became more important for survival.

(2) religious values changed with the development of agriculture.

(3) large animals were too dangerous to hunt.

(4) environmental pressures associated the end of the Pleistocene probably resulted in a lower selection pressure for artistic creativity.

(5) the settlement of villages made lengthy hunting trips impossible.


QQ Revitalization movements are religious organizations:

(1) That appear under severe stress associated with colonial conquest and/or intense exploitation and that seek to improve the life conditions of the oppressed.

(2) In which groups of non-specialists organized into age grades assume responsibility for the performance of rituals.

(3) In which a full-time professional clergy or priesthood is in charge of all the religious rituals.

(4) In which all groups have names and emblems that identify them with plants or animals known as totems.

(5) Characteristic of hunter-gatherer societies.


QQ Cargo Cults, the Ghost Dance, and Peyote Way are examples of:

(1) Revitalization movements

(2) African religions

(3) Little-known European religious movements of the 19th century

(4) Personality cults in Melanesia

(5) Religious movements among peoples whose cultures are thriving


QQ Shamans are:

(1) Women or men who are socially recognized as having special abilities for entering into contact with spirit beings and for controlling supernatural forces.

(2) Individuals identified with the totem of the sacred place of the tribe.

(3) The main priests of some ecclesiastical cults who are in charge of organizing the communal and the initiatory rituals.

(4) Individuals who have passed through the initiation rituals required if one is to be considered as a link between the gods and humans.

(5) A group of old men who are in charge of memorizing the group's history and to pass it to the younger generations.


QQ Which of the following statements about state religions is true?

(1) They function to maintain socioeconomic stratification

(2) They focus on the worship of natural phenomena

(3) They are superfluous features of state-level organizations

(4) They are characterized by rituals, such as the potlatch, which distribute wealth

(5) They are based mainly on animistic belief systems


QQ According to Kottak, Marvin Harris's analysis of the Hindu practice of not eating cattle suggests that:

(1) Beliefs about the supernatural can function as part of a group's adaptation to the environment

(2) Religion is a realm of behavior wherein people do not try to behave rationally (i.e., maximize profit and minimize loss)

(3) Generalized reciprocity is the guiding principle for the political system

(4) Religious beliefs impede evolutionary progress by encouraging wasteful energy expenditure

(5) Antagonism between the sexes characterizes primitive religious practice


QQ According to Marvin Harris, the best etic explanation for the origin of the Israelite prohibition against consumption of pork is:

(1) pig rearing by large numbers of people would have reduced the efficiency of intensified agriculture

(2) God's commandment in Leviticus (pigs are ritually unclean)

(3) maintaining the cultural identity of the Israelites

(4) the danger of trichinosis from undercooked pork

(5) pigs are more valuable alive for milk and fertilizer production


QQ Based on cross-cultural analysis, anthropologists have claimed which of the following as a function of religion?

(1) All answers are correct

(2) They create and maintain divisions within a society.

(3) They codify culturally appropriate behavior.

(4) They help people adapt to their social and natural environment.

(5) They create and maintain social solidarity.


QQ According to Kottak, induction into the U.S. Marine Corps and the vision quest of certain North American Indian societies are both examples of:

(1) rites of passage

(2) generalized exchange

(3) applied anthropology

(4) binary opposition

(5) genetic programming


QQ Although the taboo against the consumption of pork by Jews originally had a practical reason, nowadays its function is:

(1) To demarcate Jewish ethnic minority members from other groups and increase their sense of identity.

(2) To protect certain species of pig from extinction.

(3) To increase the capacity of the present Middle Eastern system of food production to support agriculture.

(4) To discourage the development of a pork meat-packing industry that would be ecologically disastrous.

(5) To equilibrate the level of production of different kinds of meats.


QQ The distinction between art and crafts:

(1) Is part of the Western tradition where art is seen as a specialized realm of culture.

(2) Is universal and related to the distinction between magic and religion.

(3) Was introduced by anthropologists to distinguish folk aesthetic expressions from specialized urban aesthetic expressions.

(4) Corresponds to the distinction between primitive cultures and advanced civilizations where art has lost any aesthetic value.

(5) All answers are correct.


QQ A unique feature of Western establishment art is:

(1) Its emphasis on artistic originality.

(2) Its reliance on preexisting forms.

(3) Its utilitarianism.

(4) The prevalence of realistic representations.

(5) All answers are correct.


QQ In state level societies, how do people determine what is and is not art?

(1) State societies rely heavily on critics, judges, and experts to make these decisions.

(2) If something is mass produced, it cannot be art.

(3) Only things intentionally created as art can be called art.

(4) Artists are professional, full-time specialists, and so art can be created only by artists.

(5) A capitalist market, free from any constraints, determines what is art.


QQ According to Kottak, French impressionism was initially:

(1) criticized for being too sketchy and spontaneous to be considered art.

(2) based on abstract sand paintings from French colonies in West Africa.

(3) heralded as one of the great innovations of 19th century painting.

(4) a throwback to "old school" painting styles.

(5) all answers are correct.


QQ Folk art, music, and lore refer to the:

(1) expressive culture of ordinary people.

(2) unrefined manifestations of human creativity produced by nonliterate societies.

(3) forms of artistic expression found in the New World prior to the arrival of Columbus.

(4) forms of artistic expression that exist independently of any given cultural system.

(5) manifestations of human creativity shared by siblings.


QQ In comparing "The Wizard of Oz" and "Star Wars," Kottak argues that:

(1) "Star Wars" is a systematic structural transformation of "The Wizard of Oz."

(2) George Lucas is not as creative as people think he is because Lucas borrowed his ideas from "The Wizard of Oz."

(3) Both films focus on the main character's relationship with the parent of the opposite sex of the main character.

(4) Both films focus on the main character's relationship with their cross-cousins within an ambilineal descent system.

(5) Both films are terribly ethnocentric and should not be part of the corpus of contemporary myths in the U.S.


QQ Which of the following statements is correct:

(1) Team sports  were played among Indians of the Americas and were introduced to Europe in the 16th century.

(2) Gambling is found equally among east and west African cultures, and among North and South American cultures.

(3) The focus on team sports in the ancient Greek Olympic games reflects the emphasis of that culture on teamwork and fair play.

(4) The universal appeal of games of strategy reflects the biological basis of warfare and the importance of games in preparing men for war.

(5) None of these answers is correct.


QQ What accounts for the irregular distribution of the practice of gambling around the world?

(1) There is currently no explanation.


(2) Regional differences in religion cause differences in the tolerance of gambling.


(3) Some economic systems are more accepting of gambling practices.


(4) Gambling moved around the globe with colonization; since not every location was colonized, not every location has gambling.


(5) Heimer’s theory of disproportionate risk-taking strategies.


QQ What is the origin of basketball?

(1) Two of these answers are correct.

(2) The idea of team sports was introduced to Europeans in the 16th century when Cortez brought Aztec ball players to Spain. Hockey, as well as basketball, derive from this event.

(3) Basketball was invented first as a game of chance in ancient China.

(4) The origin of all ball games in modern Western society is a game invented by Indians of Middle America.

(5) All team sports, like basketball and soccer, were invented in ancient Greece and were part of the first Olympics.


QQ Hockey:


(1) originated among Native Americans in eastern North America and was probably a local adaptation of a ball game played in Middle America.


(2) was originally a method for redistribution of wealth.


(3) originated in Greenland and was carried to eastern North America by the Vikings.


(4) is North America’s transformed version of South America’s soccer.


(5) was not played on ice until the invention of ice-making machines.


QQ John Roberts distinguished among kinds of games across the cultures of the world. These are games involving:

(1) physical skill, strategy, chance

(2) teams of two vs. teams of more than two people

(3) balls vs. games involving other paraphernalia

(4) intellectual abilities, such as chess vs all other kinds of games

(5) players of the same sex vs. games involving both sexes


QQ According to John Roberts, how were team sports introduced to Europe?


(1) Hernan Cortez brought Aztec ball players to the court of Charles V.


(2) Medieval Europeans simply expanded the format of ancient Greek and Roman games.


(3) Magellan brought team sports back from India.


(4) Team sports were not introduced to Europe. They originated there.


(5) They were a natural extension of cooperative farming.

QQ Fischer's cross-cultural study of art showed that:

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) The integration of diverse elements is associated with stratified societies.

(3) Repetition of simple elements is associated with egalitarian societies.

(4) Empty, unbound spaces is associated with egalitarian societies.

(5) Filled, bound spaces is associated with stratified societies.


QQ With regard to art, Fischer hypothesized that:

(1) Egalitarian societies will have art with simple elements and empty spaces

(2) Complex societies will mimic the simplicity of art in tribal societies

(3) The baroque style is no longer appealing

(4) If the technology of a society is primitive, their art will be made in a primitive way, too

(5) Mass-produced art will become popular in every society


QQ Which of the following statements is most correct?


(1) All these statements correct.


(2) Fischer hypothesized that egalitarian societies will have art based on repetition of simple elements, while stratified societies will combine elements into complex designs.


(3) Lomax found a relationship between social complexity and stylistic elements of music.


(4) Kluckhohn found five recurrent themes in folklore around the world: catastrophe, slaying of monsters, incest, sibling rivalry, and castration.


(5) Roberts found that games of strategy are associated with more complex political organization.


QQ According to Kottak, what role does the ride on the monorail between the parking lot and the entrance to the Magic Kingdom play in a pilgrimage to Walt Disney World?

(1) All of these are true

(2) It represents a brief period during which the travelers experience temporary liminal status

(3) It bridges the opposition between the outer, secular realm to the inner, sacred center

(4) It serves as a rite of passage for the travelers

(5) It symbolizes rebirth as the monorail passes through the Contemporary Resort Hotel


QQ Shamans among the Naskapi of Labrador determine the direction of each hunt by consulting the random markings on burnt bones. This is an example of:

(1) Empirical knowledge without any need for theory, like much empirical knowledge in our own society.

(2) Intellectualized understanding of probability theory by hunting-and-gathering people.

(3) Religious syncretism.

(4) Formal training for the priesthood in a hunting-and-gathering society.

(5) Revitalization ritual.


QQ Across the world today, the most obvious feature of expressive culture is syncretism. What is syncretism?


(1) the union of two or more cultural elements into one


(2) the dividing of complex ideas into their simple parts


(3) supporting people in society who believe in the core principles of that society


(4) None of these answers is correct.


(5) the development of complex technology from the simultaneous application of several primary inventions


QQ Which of the following is true:

(1) Art and religion are part of everyday practical life in most societies.

(2) Even in the most technologically primitive society, there are specialists whose only task it is to create aesthetically pleasing artifacts .

(3) Stravinsky and Picasso are examples of European artists who worked hard to eliminate any association of primitive themes with modern music and painting.

(4) Art has lost any aesthetic value in modern society.

(5) Art in the modern industrial world is on the decline because it has no commercial value.


QQ Which of the following is correct:

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) Science is the attempt to control phenomena by understanding and manipulating natural forces.

(3) Religion is the attempt to control phenomena by supplication to supernatural forces.

(4) Magic is the attempt to control phenomena by understanding and manipulating supernatural forces.

(5) The Trobriand Islanders used empirical knowledge to ensure the success of their local voyages but resorted to magic in their open-sea voyages.


QQ From Allan Lomax's work, which of the following is associated with music in hunting and gathering societies?

(1) Polyphony and counterpoint

(2) The use of a wide variety of instruments

(3) Scales with small and numerous intervals

(4) No repetition in the lyrics

(5) Complex dance movements


QQ Based on Lomax's study of music around the world, which of the following is correct?

(1) All these answers are correct.

(2) There is a relationship between social complexity and the complexity of music style.

(3) Wordiness and clarity of enunciation is associated with stratified societies.

(4) Stratified societies have soloists and song leaders, while egalitarian societies generally do not.

(5) Counterpoint and polyphony are most common in foraging societies where women supply most of the nonprotein food.


QQ Which of the following does NOT help explain the obsession by Western artists with originality?

(1) There is an inherent requirement in art for originality

(2) Mass production of art puts a premium on originality

(3) In commercial markets for art, supply tends to exceed demand

(4) There are alienating and isolating tendencies in mass society

(5) All answers are correct


QQ Which of the following is NOT a psychological theory for why people need religion?

(1) Corporate groups outlast individuals

(2) People need to explain natural phenomena

(3) People need to deal with death 

(4) People need to feel a union with a larger whole

(5) People have a need for values




QQ The core of applied anthropology today consists of:

(1) Doing research commissioned by public or private organizations in the hope of achieving practical goals of interest to those organizations.

(2) Assisting colonial governments to administer their overseas possessions.

(3) Researching local cultures using the historical particularism approach to arrive at a better understanding of humankind.

(4) Improving anthropological methods of data gathering.

(5) Preventing the acculturation and assimilation of native cultures.


QQ Unlike acculturation, diffusion

(1) can occur without firsthand contact.

(2) requires firsthand contact.

(3) all answers are correct

(4) has ceased in the modern world.

(5) does not involve cultural borrowing.


QQ What role do modern technology and mass media play as agents of cultural change?

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) They are erasing cultural differences.

(3) They allow local cultures to express themselves.

(4) They help stimulate local activities.

(5) None of these answers is correct.


QQ Diffusion makes clear that people can acquire practices or technologies by:

(1) either direct or indirect contact with other cultures.

(2) trial and error.

(3) the evolution of their brains.

(4) being taught from childhood.

(5) contact with extraterrestrials.   


QQ What is the most valuable and distinctive tool of the applied anthropologist?

(1) the ethnographic research method

(2) knowledge of genetics

(3) familiarity with farming techniques

(4) statistical expertise

(5) teaching ability


QQ According to Kottak, anthropologists fall into three camps regarding applied anthropology: the ivory tower view, the advocacy view, and the schizoid view. The schizoid view holds that:

(1) Anthropologists should help carry out, but not make or criticize policy, and should keep their value judgments separate from their scientific work.

(2)Anthropologists should confine themselves to teaching, research, and publication, avoiding practical and political issues.

(3) Anthropologists should actively seek to influence government positions and policies, but should participate only in those projects of which they approve.

(4) Value judgments and scientific investigation are completely linked.

(5) Since anthropologists know more about social change, they have a responsibility to help direct social change.


QQ Kottak describes a lawsuit brought by the parents of black students at a predominantly white elementary school in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The parents alleged that their children experienced linguistic discrimination. What was the ruling in this case?

(1) The teachers had to attend a full-year course to improve their understanding of Black Vernacular English.

(2) The school had to begin teaching Black Vernacular English as a foreign language.

(3) The black students were not facing linguistic discrimination.

(4) The white students were facing linguistic discrimination because they did not speak Black Vernacular English.

(5) The Ann Arbor School System had to pay the private school tuition for the black students.


QQ Colonialism:


(1) All these answers are correct.


(2) Was practiced at one time or another by Britain, the United States, Germany, Portugal, Holland, Japan, France, Belgium, Italy, and Spain, Denmark, and Sweden.


(3) produced massive voluntary and involuntary migrations, and we can see the voluntary migrations continuing today.


(4) helped finance the industrialization of Europe and North America, first through gold and then through profits on cheap labor.


(5) has a long relationship with anthropology. In fact, anthropology has been called the handmaiden of colonialism.


QQ Which of the following is an example of cultural resource management?

(1) the emergency excavation and cataloging of a site that is about to be destroyed by a new highway

(2) any archeological work done in a core nation-state

(3) any archaeology done in a periphery nation-state

(4) archaeology sponsored by indigenous peoples

(5) a museum returning archeological finds to the indigenous peoples whose ancestors produced the artifacts


QQ What is the branch of archaeology called that aims to preserve sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects?


(1) Cultural Resource Management


(2) Applied Archaeology


(3) Anthropological Intervention


(4) Preservationist Archaeology


(5) None of the answers are correct


QQ According to Kottak, which of the following defines the advocacy position concerning anthropologists' involvement in practical matters?

(1) Anthropologists should take an active role in creating policies affecting human beings

(2) Anthropologists should avoid practical matters and concentrate on research, publication, and teaching

(3) Anthropologists should collect facts related to carrying out policy and report their findings to the organization that has commissioned the study, but not try to influence policy

(4) Anthropologists should neither make nor criticize policy, because this would be based on their personal value judgments, which should be kept strictly separate from scientific investigation

(5) All answers are false


QQ According to Kottak, the Brazilian sisal scheme shows that:

(1) Malnutrition increased after peasants converted their garden plots to sisal.

(2) nutrition improved dramatically after peasants began growing sisal and working for wages.

(3) the production of sisal acted as a leveling mechanism, tending to equalize wealth and, hence, nutrition among different classes and groups.

(4) being malnourished is simply part of peasant life.

(5) none of these answers is true.


QQ Which of the following played a role in the ultimate failure of Java's "green revolution" to benefit small-scale farmers?

(1) All answers are correct?

(2) Management of the program was taken away from students and peasants and given to multinational corporations.

(3) Certain pesticides killed fish in the fields, thus removing an important source of already scarce protein.

(4) Elites, with vested interests in land, debt bondage, and cheap labor preferred to block changes that would reduce their socioeconomic advantages.

(5) Local elites used profits from the new rice to buy up the peasants' land.


QQ Anna Lou Dehavenon's work on the causes of urban hunger and homelessness in New York showed that the appearance of families seeking emergency food help:

(1) Was closely connected with the administrative phenomenon known as "churning"

(2) Was a consequence of drug abuse

(3) Was a consequence of the indifference of the urban poor to the worsening of their living conditions

(4) Was the result of people's failure to take advantage of the system

(5) All answers are true


QQ The main practical role of medical anthropology is:

(1) To administer development programs addressed to changing local patterns of health care.

(2) To show how the actual etic causes of illness vary from culture to culture.

(3) To teach natives the principles of modern medicine so that they can abandon ineffective healing traditions.

(4) To help understand the interaction between cultural and natural factors that causes people to become ill.

(5) All answers are false.


QQ The gender differential in the distribution of Kuru disease showed:

(1) The importance of knowing the cultural context in which diseases occur.

(2) That genetics is the most important factor in explaining how a disease is spread and distributed within a population.

(3) that women can not harbor slow viruses .

(4) That it was highly contagious and could become an epidemic.

(5) that young men were the higher risk population.


QQ Which of the following statements is correct?

(1) Innovations that originate in the infrastructure are likely to be selected for over time if they provide material improvement to people's lives, even if those innovations violate cultural rules.

(2) An adequate emic description of a behavior should explain why people come to prefer that behavior.

(3) An etic explanation of behavioral differences across cultures or subcultures (such as Harris's explanation of different kinds of "bovicide" in India) relies primarily on the differences in the emics of those cultures or subcultures.

(4) Differences in culture explain different food preferences.

(5) The superstructure consists of technologies and production activities that bear directly on basic biopsychological needs.


QQ Gerald Murray's strategy in developing a reforestation program in rural Haiti was:

(1) To give the money to local nongovernmental agencies and to turn trees into a cash crop.

(2) To raise the population's awareness on the risk of ecological disasters.

(3) To coordinate local and central government strategies.

(4) To provide incentives for the population to keep trees and get rid of their goats.

(5) To introduce high-quality hardwood trees that produce wood for very profitable luxury furniture.


QQ Haitian reforestation efforts succeeded after many failures when a shift was made from presenting trees as ecological assets to presenting them as:

(1) economic assets

(2) aesthetic assets

(3) common patrimony

(4) climate control mechanisms

(5) sociocultural and religious symbols


QQ The experience of reforestation efforts in Haiti demonstrates that:

(1) the educational model of sociocultural change has very limited application

(2) governments are the best vehicles for meeting grassroots needs

(3) planting large numbers of trees is only possible when poverty is not a major problem

(4) anthropology has little application to development efforts

(5) consultants are rarely effective in development work


QQ The educational model of social change:


(1) All of these answers are correct.


(2) is not expected to work if the behavior one is trying to change is anchored in the structure or the infrastructure of society.


(3) works best when the behavior one is trying to change is anchored in the superstructure, or culture of a society.


(4) is the basis for an international industry that employs tens of thousands of people.


(5) works best when the behavior one is trying to change is equivalent to brand loyalty in product preference.


QQ The culture of poverty:

(1) Is the consequence of poverty rather than its cause.

(2) Keeps people poor by making it impossible for them to think about the future.

(3) Is the cause of urban riots.

(4) Comprises a set of values held by most poor people, no matter what country they live in.

(5) Is the reason that poor people can not manage their finances.


QQ Which of the following is correct:

(1) The second demographic transition began in Europe in the 18th century and is now spreading to Third World countries.

(2) The second demographic transition involves making women increasingly dependent on their children for economic security.

(3) The examples of Barbados, Mexico, and Zimbabwe show that the second demographic transition has not yet begun in the Third World.

(4) The first demographic transition occurred in the Paleolithic with the evolution of the genus Homo.

(5) It is generally believed that there were about 900 million people in the world at the end of the Paleolithic.


QQ Which if the following is NOT correct?

(1) The first demographic transition began in the mid-18th century in Europe, with industrialization.

(2) The first demographic transition took place during the Neolithic as children became a valued commodity.

(3) The second demographic transition began in the mid-18th century in Europe, but is today spreading to many of the world's developing nations.

(4) The second demographic transition is based on the increasing costs of raising children and increasing economic opportunities for women.

(5) Data from the European Union show that religion is not a factor in the total fertility rate.


QQ Life expectancy is not the same for all Americans. Which of the following statements is correct?

(1) All these are correct

(2) The age-adjusted death rate for Americans has been going down steadily over the last 20 years, but the gap between the rates for black men and white men has actually widened.

(3) The current life expectancy at birth for white male babies is about 75 years, while for black male babies it is about 68 years.

(4) Infant mortality for blacks is currently more than double that for whites.

(5) The chance of being murdered in 1998 was about 14 per 100,000 for white men 20-24 years of age, and about 128 per 100,000 for black men of the same age.


QQ Because of a demographic shift, Japan is facing a dilemma. The dilemma is:

(1) How to maintain national cultural and racial homogeneity in the face of a labor shortage.

(2) How to control overpopulation

(3) What to do with a surplus of workers between 18-50 years of age

(4) Women want to work, but they also want to have many children

(5) How to deal with high unemployment among ethnic minorities


QQ Most PhD anthropologists graduating today:

(1) Are going into nonacademic employment.

(2) Are getting jobs in museums.

(3) Are going into teaching, particularly at the college and university level.

(4) Are finding that there are no job opportunities at all for them.

 (5) None of these answers is correct.


QQ Tobacco went from the east coast of North America to the west coast

(1) By going east and then entirely around the world.

(2) By going west with the early French fur traders across Canada.

(3) Despite the fact that many western states in the U.S. tried to pass laws against growing the plant.

(4) As a result of stimulus diffusion.

(5) In about ten years, once the first contact was made with Europeans. 


QQ Tobacco:

(1) Traveled around the world, from the east coast of North America to the west coast, in 150 years, beginning in the mid-16th century

(2) Was domesticated first by the Kwakiutl and other Northwest Coast Indians

(3) Was immediately welcomed by authorities in Turkey, Japan, and Russia because it was easy to tax

(4) Was brought to the New World by Sir Walter Raleigh and had an immediate and dramatic impact on the health of American Indians

(5) All answers are correct


QQ The primary and most common agent of change is:

(1) Borrowing or diffusion.

(2) Primary invention.

(3) Conquest and colonization.

(4) Revitalization movements.

(5) Revolution.


QQ Which of the following is a primary invention?

(1) The wheel.

(2) Paper.

(3) Tobacco.

(4) The automobile.

(5) DNA.


QQ The keystone was discovered independently by the:

(1) Eskimos and Romans.

(2) Greeks and Mayas.

(3) Egyptians and Incas.

(4) Chinese and Melanesian.

 (5) Hindus and Aztecs.


QQ The _______________ is a primary independent invention that arose twice: once with the ____________ and once with the ____________.


(1) keystone: Eskimos and Romans


(2) wheel: Greeks and Mayas


(3) keystone: Egyptians and Incas


(4) wheel: Chinese and Melanesian


(5) catapult: Hindus and Aztecs


QQ Under what conditions does the educational/culture change model work?

(1) When the behavior targeted for change is rooted in the superstructure

(2) When the behavior is rooted in the structure

(3) When the behavior is rooted in the infrastructure

(4) It almost always works

(5) When it works is unpredictable


QQ The theory that some societies do not advance economically because they are not ready to receive ideas about modernization is based on what paradigm?

(1) Idealism

(2) Individualism (the great person theory of history)

(3) Environmentalism

(4) Cultural materialist

(5) Primitive structuralism


QQ Which of the following statements is most correct?


(1) All these statements are correct.


(2) The dominant theory of modernization is based on the market theory for the building of wealth.


(3) Modernization theory posits that modern ideas must diffuse to lesser-developed countries in order for those countries to modernize.


(4) Dependency theory proposes that lack of modernization is a consequence of colonialism and its aftermath.


(5) Wallerstein’s world systems theory shows that the capitalist world system has encompassed both the developed and the underdeveloped countries of the world in a core and periphery structure.

QQ The applied anthropology tradition in Mexico has been concerned with:

(1) All answers are correct.

(2) The absorption and assimilation of Indian populations to the national culture.

(3) The expansion of bilingual education to develop loyalty toward the nation state among the native populations.

(4) Enhancing the level of participation of ethnic minorities in the national economy.

(5) The preservation of Mexico's cultural heritage.


QQ What is responsible for the relatively high life expectancy in China?

(1) The distribution of resources for health care and nutrition.

(2) The high level of industrialization.

(3) The low level of income per capita.

(4) The upskilling of adult labor and the opening of opportunities for women.

(5) High fertility and early age of marriage.


QQ According to lecture, what accounts for China’s GNP/PC of 330, life expectancy of 70, and infant mortality rate of 31?


(1) a centralized economy and autocracy


(2) heroic medical care available to all


(3) modern expressive architecture


(4) a modern feudalistic government


(5) advanced communication systems

 QQ The Gini Index has increased over the years, both in the U.S. and across the world. This index measures:


(1) inequality in the distribution of income.


(2) inequality in infant mortality across countries.


(3) inequality in total fertility rate across countries.


(4) the relative number of people who are elderly.


(5) access to health care across incomes.